After Beijing became the capital city, its economy developed greatly and its population increased greatly. Gradually, the city will not be able to accommodate it, and the territory of Kyoto will develop outside the city gate. It is said that it is developing outside the city gate, but it is mainly concentrated on both sides of the streets outside the city gates, such as Zhengyangmenwai Street. In this way, a bulge similar to a tumor is formed on the outside of the city gate. These bulges are called "Guanxiang", which refers to the gate of the city and the surrounding area, such as the wing room. In the past, there was a small area called Guanxiang outside the gate of the inner city, such as Anwai Guanxiang and Chaowai Guanxiang. Now these "Guanxiang" are not mentioned, because all the Guanxiang are connected into one piece, not one by one. Only the place name Dewaiguanxiang has survived, and it is often mentioned. The No. 55 bus also has a stop at Dewai Guanxiang, and then goes to Qijia Huozi, which is a gap in the earthen city wall of the Yuan Dynasty.

More than a hundred years after Zhu Di moved the capital, the Guanxiang area has become very developed. Not only do some people own houses, but the key is that they contribute taxes to the court. At this time, the northern Mongols would often come to Beijing to harass. Although the city had a strong wall that could still be defended by itself, it would be looted outside the wall. During the Jiajing period, the bandits became even worse, and someone suggested to Emperor Jiajing to build an outer city and enclose all the Guanxiang area, and the emperor allowed it. Originally, they wanted to build the outer city wall along the original city wall of the capital of Yuan Dynasty, but the budget would cost a lot of silver, but the official's silver was a lot. what to do? We had to pick the important city wall first, and finally circled the place where the most tax was collected on the south side. This is the outer city wall outside the first three gates. This circle of city walls is now the southeast, south and southwest sections of the Second Ring Road. Therefore, the scope of the city wall of Beijing City is the entire second ring road now.

After the outer city wall was repaired, several city gates were built on the wall. Like the inner city gates, there were towers, archery towers and urns. These city gates are Guangqumen in the east, Guang'anmen in the west, Zuo'anmen, Yongdingmen and You'anmen in the south. Two side gates were also built at the place where the east and west ends connected the inner city wall, the specifications were much smaller, and they were later called the east and west gates. The location of the West Bianmen is on the north wall of Jinzhongdu, and from this we can roughly know the location of Jinzhongdu. The construction of the South Outer City Wall started in the 32nd year of Jiajing (1553) of the Ming Dynasty, and was basically completed in the 43rd year of Jiajing (1564). The blue iron construction fence can be removed.

When the Second Ring Road was being built, the outer city walls were demolished, including the outer city gates. In 2004, Beijing launched the Central Axis to apply for World Heritage Sites, and the Yongdingmen Tower at the southern end of the Central Axis was rebuilt as it was.

A central axis sign is also installed on the ground in the door opening.

Looking north along the city gate, you can see the Zhengyangmen Archery Tower in the distance. Above the archery tower is the roof of the Zhengyangmen Gate Tower, and behind it is the Chairman Mao Memorial Hall.

On both sides of this road is the Temple of Heaven and the other is Xiannongtan. Stand on this road and look back to the south to see the Yongdingmen Tower.

Several evergreen pines were planted on both sides of the tower.

The setting sun in the afternoon hangs on the corner of the tower.

Just look at its front.

The city platform below is actually three piers connected together, so it looks like the piers at Chongwenmen. On the city platform is a two-story pavilion with double eaves on the top of the mountain. There is a circle of eaves corridors around the first floor; The pavilion is five rooms wide and three rooms deep. The top is gray tiles with green glazed edges. The ridge kiss on the main ridge is not an owl kiss, but the same dragon-headed beast as the Zhengyang Gate Tower, and the same is true on the Deshengmen Archery Tower. There is a stone plaque of "Yongdingmen" on the arch gate in the middle. The original Ming Dynasty gate plaque was excavated at Xiannongtan a year ago when the tower was rebuilt. It is the plaque in the 32nd year of Jiajing. The plaque now inlaid is a copy of the original, and it looks like the same regular script as the "Pingzemen" gate plaque. There is also a wooden "Yongding Gate" plaque on the gate tower, which is said to be inscribed by Mr. Shao Zhang, a calligrapher in the early years of the Republic of China. Looking at the font of the list, I guess the door plaque of Zhengyangmen was also made by Mr. Shao.

Yongdingmen definitely means eternal stability. Nancheng was built to resist the invasion of Mongolian bandits, and the five new gates all have the meaning of peace and tranquility. Guang'anmen was originally called Guangningmen, and was renamed Guang'anmen in the Qing Dynasty; the "qu" in Guangqumen also means "broad".

Look at the lion in front of the door, there shouldn't be a lion here.

Look at the corner of the tower, it is very beautiful under the sunlight.

When Yongding Gate was rebuilt, the city bricks that had been demolished were found, and they were all built on the city wall, so this is still the Ming city wall. The rammed earth inside the city bricks is not from the Ming Dynasty, and even if it was, you can't see it. The archery tower has not been restored, and of course the Wengcheng has not been restored. The moat around the Wengcheng was dug through, and it was connected to the south moat. There was really water in it, barking. The old Wengcheng has now been built into a square.

Surrounding residents can walk and fly kites here.

The old city gates in Beijing are the Zhengyangmen Tower and the Archery Tower, the Deshengmen Archery Tower in the inner city and the reconstructed Yongdingmen Gate Tower in the outer city.

The Second Ring Road is built along the city wall of Beijing. There are Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Ring Roads outside the Second Ring Road. Where is the First Ring Road? You must know that there is a "Rooms of the Imperial City" in Beijing, and there is a TV series "Roots of the Imperial City". The city of Beijing used to be nested in several layers, with the outer city outside, the inner city inside, and the imperial city inside the inner city, and the palace city "Forbidden City" inside the imperial city. There are also four gates in the Forbidden City: Meridian Gate, Shenwu Gate, Donghua Gate and Xihua Gate.

The First Ring Road is actually a circle along the root of the imperial city, but it is so narrow that it cannot be called a "ring road". Beijing is also called "Sijiu City". This Sijiu City refers to the common people's world between the nine gates of the inner city and the four gates of the imperial city. I have already mentioned the nine gates of the inner city, and I have also seen several ruins. We are all familiar with the four gates of the imperial city, namely Tiananmen, Di'anmen, Xi'anmen and Donganmen. Tiananmen is still there, but the other three gates are gone, and they have all become place names. The circle of the imperial city starts from Chang'an Avenue, and to the east is Nanheyan and Beiheyan Avenues. The river mentioned by this river is Yuhe, which is the Yuhe that leads to Zhengyi Road. From Donghuamen, go east along Donghuamen Street to the intersection of the north-south riverside boundary. This is the location of Dong'anmen, which was demolished earlier. Those old diggers who specialized in digging in the past few years dug out the base of the Donganmen wall, which is more than 2 meters below the ground today. That should be the foundation of the old city gate.

The outside of the base of the wall used to be yellow earth, but now it is paved with blue bricks, and the base of the wall is Ming Dynasty bricks. Even here is the site of Dong'anmen.

The imperial city wall of the Ming Dynasty was first located on the west side of Nanheyan Road, and the Yuhe River was outside the city. After the new Dong'an Gate was built, the original Dong'an Gate was not demolished, and it was called Dong'anli Gate. There is a bridge between the two gates on the Yuhe River.

After the Yuhe River was covered, it is now the North-South Heyan Street, bounded by Donghuamen Street, and a green park is now built on the city wall outside the street.

Further east is Dong'anmen Street, all the way to the north entrance of Wangfujing Street. The east wall of the imperial city was originally on the west bank of the Yuhe River, which was outside the city. Later, the east wall moved eastward, and Yuhe was surrounded into the imperial city. Outside the imperial city was Donghuangchenggen North and South Street, bounded by Wusi Street.

There is also a tributary of the Yuhe River in the imperial city, which flows eastward from the Jinshui River in front of Tiananmen Square, flows along the inner wall of the imperial city to the junction of Nanheyan Road, and then flows southward through Zhengyi Road until it flows into the South Moat. In 2002, this tributary was dug into a clear river, and a park called "Changpu River" was built.

Don't guess, the bridge over the river is not called Changpu Bridge. There is passerby A reading a book by the river, and passerby B walking the road.

Some citizens on the shore were playing and knocking on three houses.

On the opposite bank is the "Stone of Other Mountains". Behind the stone is the south wall of the imperial city. Inside the wall are idle people who are as quiet as virgins, and outside the wall are cars moving like rabbits on Chang'an Avenue.

There is a royal archives in the north of the Changpu River on the east side of the imperial city, called "Huangshicheng", and "cheng" is also pronounced as "cheng".

The Huangshicheng Hall is a stone hall without beams, without wood, and the brackets and beams are imitated wood and stone carvings. The inside is warm in winter and cool in summer, and the collection of books is just right. The stacks of modern libraries are also dark rooms like this.

Walking north along Nanchizi from Huangshicheng, there is an east-west alley called Pudu Temple Front Alley. There must be a Pudu Temple inside, and there really is. It can be seen that the whole temple is on a green brick platform, and there are steps up in front of the mountain gate.

This large area was called Xiaonancheng in the Ming Dynasty, and its big name was Hongqing Palace, also known as Nangong. The Nangong Palace was first built by Zhu Di for his grandson Zhu Zhanji, which is the same age as the Forbidden City. In the 14th year of Zhengtong (1449), Zhu Qizhen, Emperor Yingzong of the Ming Dynasty, personally conquered the Oala tribe of Mongolia, but was not caught and was taken into captivity. The younger brother Zhu Qiyu succeeded as the Ming Emperor in Beijing and repelled the Mongolian army. One year later, in the first year of Jingtai, the Wara tribe returned to Zhuqi Town. The Emperor of the Ming Dynasty welcomed Zhu Qizhen, the Supreme Emperor, at Dong'anmen. After that, Ming Yingzong Zhu Qizhen lived in Nangong for seven years, which was equivalent to house arrest. In the eighth year of Jingtai (1457), after the change of Nangong, Zhu Qizhen regained the throne and changed Yuan Tianshun. Emperor Zhu Qiyu of the Ming Dynasty was abolished and placed under house arrest in Xiyuan, which is now Zhongnanhai. He died within two months, at the age of thirty.

The main hall of Pudu Temple is the sleeping hall of Chonghua Palace in Xiaonan City, which is also the sleeping hall of Zhu Zhanji when he was the grandson of the emperor. When Ming Yingzong Zhu Qizhen was imprisoned in Nangong, he also used this place as his sleeping hall. At the end of Ming Dynasty, Li Zicheng invaded Beijing, and Nangong was burned and abandoned. When the Qing army first entered Beijing, the regent Dorgon chose this remnant palace to build a house, called Prince Rui's Mansion, and the main hall of Pudu Temple is still used as a sleeping hall. After Dorgon was killed by an arrow, the palace was confiscated by Shunzhi; during the Kangxi period, the northern half of the palace was converted into a temple, and Qianlong rebuilt it. Pudu Temple is the name given by Qianlong. After Qianlong became emperor, he changed the name of the Xier Palace where he lived in the palace when he was the prince to Chonghua Palace. Therefore, the Pudu Temple is the Chonghua Palace in the early Ming Dynasty, and the Chonghua Palace after Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty is in the Forbidden City. "Chonghua" comes from "Shu Shun Dian" "This Shun can succeed Yao, and he emphasizes the brilliance of his culture and virtue." Chonghua Palace is a bit like Qianlong Palace in Kaifeng Prefecture.

The gate of Pudu Temple has been preserved, which is the same as the gate of Zhusong Temple seen last time, but with green glazed tiles.

Looking at the Shanmen Temple from the back, half of the glazed tiles on the roof are new and half are old. Are the old ones from the Qianlong period?

Turn around and look at the main hall "Tzu Chi Hall", which used to be the bedroom of many people. Looking at the roof of the main hall from the front, it has the style of the Ming Dynasty.

Look at it from the side again.

There is a three-foot white marble xumizuo under the main hall, and the upper part is covered with blue bricks. This specification is very high. It should be the foundation of the Ming Dynasty and should be suitable for the emperor's grandson. Dorgon must have chosen this place as the palace because of the high standard of the building foundation. It is estimated that this is one of the crimes that Shunzhi used to recover his throne. The main hall is five rooms wide and three rooms deep. On the top is a single-eave gable top of gray bricks and tiles with green glazed edges. In front of the main hall was originally a large platform. After Dorgon was rehabilitated, Qianlong built three buildings on the platform for the main hall. The buildings are green glazed tiles with yellow glazed edges and a single-eave rolling shed on the top of the mountain. There is a circle of eaves corridors in the main hall and the building. This hall is not a column partition window, but a brick wall. The glazed bricks at the lower end of the wall are very special. They are not very high, but the upper edge is higher than the lower edge of the window. Such a large mullion window is very rare, and only the Kunning Palace in the Forbidden City has such a large mullion window. Because the main hall of Pudu Temple is built with blue brick walls, it really needs such a large window to increase lighting.

Go to the porch and look up.

This roof is not a bucket arch structure, but a beam-through structure.

Entering the hall to see, it really is.

The above is the smallpox of Shuanglong and Xipingqi, and the old one is from the Qianlong period.

There are also several painted paintings from the Qianlong period on the horizontal drape between Liang and Fang, with a very special style. These paintings are not Hexi paintings or Soviet-style paintings, but flowers, birds, fish and insects, bottles and cans, and even a drawer of steamed dumplings.

If you take a closer look at those bottles and jars, especially the xiaolongtangbao, it is not a Chinese painting at all, but a Western Baroque oil painting style, which is comparable to the still life paintings of the eighteenth-century French painter Chardin. It is said that although there was a western wind spreading eastward during the Qianlong period, Western painting has not yet spread to this place, right? This was a temple back then. Dorgon asked someone to draw this? It was even more impossible, because the west wind had not blown east at that time. The ancient paintings hung horizontally in this hall are amazing! I chatted with the staff at the door, and he didn't know the origin and depth of these paintings. However, he does know about the new paintings currently on display in the palace.

The current exhibition here is the ink painting of Mr. Fan Yuzhou, a painter of splash ink school. It is said that Mr. Fan is the twenty-ninth generation grandson of Mr. Fan Zhongyan. However, I think his ink paintings are far from the ink paintings of Fan Zhongyan's time, probably more than twenty-nine generations.

In short, there are wonderful paintings in Pudu Temple. Thanks to Mr. Fan's wonderful ink painting exhibition, I had the opportunity to enter the hall to see those wonderful ancient paintings on the beams. The staff at the gate said that the main hall is usually not open, so they can only stand in the yard to see the appearance of the main hall and the mountain gate. The Pudu Temple is now open to the public for free. The courtyard is a playground for the children of the surrounding alley residents to play. The children are very happy to run around. The mothers sit under the trees and brush their phones, and no one is knitting. Occasionally, someone rents the hall to hold art exhibitions or other exhibitions, which are all related to culture anyway.

After Shunzhi confiscated Dorgon's palace, it was rebuilt again during the Kangxi period. The northern half of the palace was converted into a temple, which is the Pudu Temple that is still alive today. The southern half of the palace was converted into various warehouses. Some place names in Chaoyangmen have "cang" in them, and some alleys here have "ku" in their names, such as lantern warehouse, porcelain warehouse and satin warehouse.

The above refers to the east wall of the imperial city and the east garden of the imperial city, the north wall of the imperial city is in the current Pingan Street, and the north wall of Beihai Park is a section of the imperial city wall. The location of Di'anmen is at the intersection of today's Di'anmen.

The west wall of the imperial city is a bit complicated. The northern section is now Xihuangchenggen North Street, where there is the famous Beijing No. 4 Middle School. The south of West Huangchenggen North Street must be West Huangchenggen South Street. There is a Liwang Mansion on West Huangchenggen South Street. It is the residence of the descendants of Prince Li in Qing Dynasty. . Xi'anmen Street is the boundary between the North and South Streets of West Huangchenggen, from which the west wall of the imperial city turns eastward, and walks along the north side of Xi'anmen Street until it reaches the intersection of Fuyou Street. The former Xi'an Gate is on the side of Wenjin Street at the intersection of Fuyou Street. You see, Xi'an Gate and Dong'an Gate are not on the same line, Xi'an Gate is to the north. The west wall of the imperial city goes along the east of Fuyou Street to Chang'an Avenue. Beihai, Jingshan, and Zhongnanhai are all in the imperial city. On Chang'an Street, you can still see the city walls of the former imperial city. The Zhongnanhai Overseas Wall must be, as are the south walls of Zhongshan Park and the Working People's Cultural Palace.

Tiananmen is majestic and majestic, but the other gates of the imperial city are relatively simple. There is no platform, but a three-hole brick arch gate. The imperial city is full of royal property, and it also serves the royal family. Therefore, the Forty Nine Cities mentioned by old Beijing does not include the imperial city. In this way, you will know where the First Ring Road is. To the south is Chang'an Avenue; to the north is Ping'an Avenue; to the east are Nanheyan Street and Beiheyan Street, and later Donghuangchenggen South Street and North Street; to the west are Fuyou Street, Xi'anmen Street and West Huangchenggen North Street.

The city walls of Beijing have been dismantled and there is no trace of them. Not only Beijing, but also the walls of foreign capitals have long been demolished. The walls of Paris are gone, and I have seen the remains of one of its gates.

The ancient Roman city walls were also demolished, and what remains now is a fortress on the city wall, which is the Castel Sant'Angelo below.

After the demolition of the city wall in Madrid, Spain, the place where the city gate used to be became a square. This is the Puerta del Sol.

It seems that the walls of Chinese and foreign capitals have similar fates. Beijing rebuilt a Yongdingmen gate tower, but it may be quite difficult to build a few more gate towers, and it is unnecessary. The rebuilding of the Yongdingmen Gate Tower is in line with the application of the central axis.

So far, even if I have talked about the gates and walls of Beijing City, I have also seen a few ruins.

(end of serialization)