After seeing the front court and the back bedroom, the long corridor line and the front mountain buildings, and the newly built grand theater building by Cixi, the elegant Harmonious Interest Garden and the exquisite Ji Qingxuan, you can look south in front of the Yulan Hall . First, you can take a look at some scenic buildings over there; second, you can enjoy the scenery of lakes and mountains of Longevity Hill in Kunming Lake.

There is a small square in front of Yulan Hall on the east bank of Kunming Lake. There is a value house on the east side of the square, which may have been the value house of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the past. Decades ago, Zhichunting Restaurant, the largest restaurant in the Summer Palace besides Tingli Pavilion, was opened in this value house. It serves a variety of Beijing-style stir-fried dishes, hard-pressed cucumbers and rice dumplings, and the key is to serve beer and drinks. At that time, a group of us friends occasionally made a plastic draft of iced draft beer, and walked to the Zhichun Pavilion to sit down and drink slowly. Tourists saw a few young men sitting there drinking big bowls and making loud noises; even if they didn't eat large pieces of meat, it was quite scary, and they all avoided us. At that time, we were not allowed to report, otherwise there would definitely be people wearing red hoops who would throw us out of the Summer Palace. In recent years, fires have been banned in the ancient buildings of the Summer Palace, and restaurants cannot be opened. There are only a few small shops selling boxed lunches and dumplings cooked in electric pots, and the Zhichunting restaurant has also been converted into a food store, selling some non-alcoholic drinks to lure tourists.

After passing the value house and continuing south, there is a city gate. This is the largest gate in the Summer Palace, and it also served as the garden gate during the Qingyi Garden period. The city platform is quite large, with a courtyard on it, a two-story pavilion facing south, with eaves and corridors leading out from the front and back, and several small side halls around it. This is Wenchang Pavilion. It was a three-story pavilion during the Qingyi Garden period. It was burned down by the British and French allied forces in the tenth year of Xianfeng (1860 A.D.), and rebuilt into a two-story pavilion during the Guangxu period. Wenchang Pavilion is quite beautiful, with red pillars and red walls, and the top is yellow glazed tiles with green trim and single eaves on the top of the mountain.

To the south is outside the pass, and "Wenchang Pavilion" is engraved on the forehead stone.

Wenchang Pavilion is usually dedicated to Emperor Wenchang. According to the historical story, the source of this Wenchang emperor is Zhang Yu, a Shu native who fought against Fu Jian of the former Qin Dynasty in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Later, someone merged Zhang Yuci with the Zitong Shenyazi Temple next door, and renamed it Zhang Yazi. In the Yuan Dynasty, Emperor Renzong of the Yuan Dynasty granted Zhang Yazi the title of Emperor Wenchang, who assisted Yuan Kaihua, and Silu, who was the star of the three stars of "Fu Lu Shou".

Wenchang Pavilion used to be able to buy tickets to visit, but now it is banned. Look at the Wenchang Pavilion under the setting sun, it is splendid.

From Zhichunting restaurant to Wenchang Pavilion, there is a wall. This is the palace wall of the Qingyi Garden period, and a part of it was expanded during the Summer Palace period. There is a door on this wall, which is one of the convenient doors of Qingyi Garden.

There is a "Summer Palace Museum" sign on the door, which has just been put up in the past two years. Go in and have a look.

I remember that it was originally called Wenchangyuan Exhibition Hall. I haven't been here for many years, and it used to be an empty space in my memory. There are open-air movies on summer nights in the open space. Enter from the east gate of Wenchang Courtyard in the east, and a ticket is 15 cents. It seems that there have been no open-air movies since the 1990s, and the door under Wenchang Pavilion is also closed. After 2000, it was rebuilt as above.

When Guangxu rebuilt the Summer Palace, another wall was built outside the palace wall of the Qingyi Garden of His Excellency Wenchang, which is now the wall of the east gate of Wenchang Garden. The courtyard between the two walls became the inner building of the Summer Palace. According to records, this courtyard used to be the imperial dining room during the Guangxu period. Huh? When the Empress Dowager Cixi lived in Le Shoutang, if meals were delivered from here, wouldn't the Empress Dowager never be able to drink hot porridge?

This gate is not the gate of the original imperial dining room, nor is it a copy, or it is rebuilt. Basically, there are three palace gates in accordance with the regulations. The open room is open, and the second room is closed. Those picture beams, pendant columns and collared panels under the front eaves are all out of specification and should not have been there. Under the eaves hangs a gilded Kowloon plaque of "Summer Palace Museum". The word "Museum" must have been taken from other plaques in the garden, and the "Pavilion" seems to be from the "Hall of Orioles".

On one side of the gate is a bronze lion in the style of the Qing Dynasty. The man is on the left and the woman is on the right. The origin is unknown. There are three exposed seats on both sides under the outer wall of the door, on which bronze vessels are placed. These decorations look very new, and they should be fakes in recent years, that is, replicas. See what's there.

Imitation of three-legged gram tripod, filled with meat.

In imitation of King Wu's conquest of Shang Gui (remembering ghosts), it serves rice.

Imitation of Zhou Yu (Nian Lei), wine holder.

Imitation Zhou pot, filled with water.

Imitation of Shang animal face pattern statue, holding wine.

Imitation of amphora vase, flower arrangement.

Go in and have a look. The courtyard is not a formal quadrangle. There is a main hall and an apse behind the main hall. There are verandas on both sides of the main hall, even if it is two courtyards. There are supporting halls in the front and back yards. Look at the main hall.

Although this is no longer the reconstruction of the imperial dining room in the past, it still follows the palace system of the Qing Dynasty. There is a two-foot-high base under the main hall, five rooms wide and two rooms deep, and three rooms in the front. On the top is the top of the mountain with a single-eave rolling shed with gray tiles and beams. There are gold-plated paintings of Shuanglong and Xi, Xuanzi and Xi on the beams, and gorgeous gold-plated woodcuts on the sparrow. This is a serious royal palace, and the imperial dining room must not be like this, it is overstepping; it is very suitable to be the main exhibition room of the Summer Palace Museum.

On the day I came here, the Summer Palace and the Albert Museum jointly held an exhibition titled "Extraordinary Arts". Check out the main showroom.

The interior is made of bricks and tiles, with peony flowers and flat chess ceilings. As soon as you enter the door, it is a warm pavilion with a pretend screen door. The outside is a Chinese royal-style pillar gate. There are two red pillars, and the double dragons and seals are pasted with gold on the beams and pillars. Between the beams are gold paste. Tuanlong engraved collar Huaban. This square beam collar should be imitated from Ningshou Palace, the apse of Huangji Hall in the Forbidden City. Pay attention to its column foundation, which is double-drum drum-shaped. There are no such plinths in the Summer Palace, nor in the Imperial Palace. Such gorgeous buildings in the royal family in the Qing Dynasty were all built with stucco-shaped pillar foundations. In fact, you can know the style of the pillar foundations of the Great Hall of the Summer Palace by visiting the Hall of Renshou not far away. A Western-style arched door is set inside this Chinese-style column gate, and two Doric square columns support an arc-shaped arch, in the style of French classicism. The two nested doors combining Chinese and Western may want to say that the exhibition behind is a mix of Chinese and Western exhibits.

There is a pair of very ornate door leaves behind this false door, pretending to be the door leaves of Western-style arched doors.

They say it is the door of the Church of Our Lady in an Orthodox church in Kyiv, supplied by Catherine II, gilded in pure silver. There are six high-relief sculptures of character stories on the two doors, the top two are "Conception Announcement" and "Pilgrimage of the Shepherds", and the bottom four are the four evangelists St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke and St. John. How did this gate end up in England? It may be a spoil of war. I don’t know if it was captured from Napoleon or from the Germans during the two wars? Kyiv was still part of Russia at the time.

Walking around, it is very interesting to see some mosaic paintings, which are mosaics. These mosaics are so detailed that you can't see them at all unless you look closely. I guess it was drawn on a white mosaic board, otherwise how could it be so fine? Look at the two Baroque style.

The picture is seen from the ruins of the Palatine Hill, with the Flavi Arena and the Arch of Constantine.

The following is the Bernini bronze canopy in St. Peter's Basilica, the largest bronze product in the West. I mentioned it when I talked about the copper pavilion earlier.

Look at ancient Chinese paintings again.

It must have been painted by the painters of the Ruyi Pavilion of the Qing Palace Building Office, "Dehe Garden Celebration of Birthday", ink and color on silk. In the painting is a three-story stage, which is very similar to the Deheyuan Theater Building, with three floors with corners and double eaves, and a second-story theater building behind it. There are plaques under the eaves of each floor, the first floor is covered, the second floor is "prolonging life and longevity", and the third floor is "blessing". There is also a couplet on the first floor, which is not very clear. It seems to be "Heaven bestows on the emperor and his ministers to celebrate and prolong their lives, and Minfeng, the capital of the land, will celebrate Wandai Qing". There are viewing galleries on both sides, and the middle space is very large, with tables, chairs and eating and drinking. According to the research of drama experts, "The Queen Mother's Birthday" was staged on the first floor; "Fu Lu Shou Samsung" was staged on the second floor. The perspective of the picture is not like the Yile Hall in the Virtuous Harmony Garden, but rather like the second floor of the Yueshi Building opposite the Changying Pavilion in the Forbidden City. Who is the master who watched the opera without painting? If it is a painted Dehe Garden, then the master who watched the opera should be Empress Dowager Cixi.

The most fantastic thing is that the painting is surreal. The stage has a ceiling under the eaves on the third floor. I don't know if it is a temporary shed or a theater built somewhere indoors. Anyway, there is no such building in reality. You can see that the pillars of the shed are so thin, if the wind blows the shed, if the shed does not collapse, the painter will not be named Wang!

There are also some Qing palace collections in the Summer Palace, all of which were produced in the Qing Dynasty.

There are quite a few Daya Zhai porcelains.

When I saw the Le Shoutang earlier, I mentioned the seven main halls of the concubine’s dormitory in the Yuanmingyuan, “Heaven and Earth, One Spring”. During the Qianlong Dynasty, the imperial concubine gave birth to Emperor Jiaqing Yongyan here; The imperial concubine and concubine Yi lived here when they drove into the garden, which is the west three rooms of the main hall. According to the system, the west end is the bedroom, and the west second room is the living room. The Xishao Room is the calligraphy and painting room of the concubine Yi, not a warehouse for collecting calligraphy and painting, but a room for practicing calligraphy and painting. Concubine Yi wrote "Da Ya Zhai" by herself, made a paper plaque and hung it on the door cover of the west room. The "Da Ya Zhai" plaque in the picture above is an imitation of the ancient plaque. These three characters should be in Yipin's handwriting, and the level is very elementary. Look at the "vertical hook" she wrote. The royal family in the Qing Dynasty didn't write like this. They all had "vertical" but no "hook". Concubine Yi was later Empress Dowager Cixi, everyone knows this.

During the Guangxu period, there was a small upsurge in porcelain firing, especially in Jingdezhen official kilns. The official porcelain of this period was abundant and good in the late Qing Dynasty, especially during Cixi’s 70th birthday, a complete set of porcelain was made for the Summer Palace. Cixi special porcelain is different from the traditional inscription of the Qing Palace. The traditional inscription is "Qing Chacha year system"; The style is "Dayazhai" famille rose porcelain. There are "Yongqing Changchun" red seals on the bottom, we can't see them, and experts can grab them and turn them over to see the bottom. But we can see the exquisite craftsmanship, delicate paintings and charming colors of Dayazhai porcelain.

Take a look at the following Qianlong-style famille rose chicken bowl cup. This is a Daya Zhai imitation porcelain, which is definitely not inferior to the original Qianlong porcelain.

The porcelain clay of Ming Chenghua Chicken Crock Cup is very distinctive, it will glow yellow after being exposed to light. Qianlong also used the same porcelain clay when imitating Chenghua, and the above Guangxu imitation Qianlong still used the same porcelain clay. It shows that the royal antique porcelain in the Qing Dynasty was still very rigorous. There are several Qianlong pastel chicken cups in existence. Although they are very precious, they are not rare. Guangxu imitation Qianlong famille rose chicken cup is quite rare, isn't it?

Come out of the Summer Palace Museum, look back, and return to Wenchang Pavilion. There is a courtyard on the north side of the gate of Wenchang Yuan, with the sign of the Summer Palace Research Institute hanging on it.

This door is also newly built, go up and take a closer look. This is a three-room hall as the gate, the door is open in the open room, and the sill wall and sill window in the second room; the beams and gray tiles are lifted and the single-eave rolling shed is hard on the mountain top. There are eaves corridors in front and inverted houses on both sides. There are gold-pasted paintings of Ssangyong and Xi, Xuanzi and Xi on the horizontal beams between the pillars, gold on the sparrows, and even gold on the plum blossom door hairpin. If this courtyard is not for the emperor to live in, it is definitely overstepping.

Go to the porch and "look up at the bright moon", wow!

There is actually a plaque with the inscription "Yelü Chucai Temple" written in gold.

When you look at the word "Yelu", you can tell that this person is from the Khitan, the surname of the royal family of the Liao Dynasty. The most famous Yelu native is Yelu Abaoji, the ancestor of the Liao Dynasty, who established the Khitan Kingdom and was the founding emperor of the Liao Dynasty. Yelu Chucai here is the ninth grandson of Yelu Abaoji, the true descendant of the royal family of the Liao Kingdom. In the Jin Dynasty, the Jurchens were the most powerful, and the founding emperor was Wanyan Aguda. The Jin people seized the world of the Liao Kingdom, but they did not kill the Liao Emperor. Even if they captured the last Emperor Tianzuo of the Liao Kingdom, they did not kill them. Therefore, the Yelu family, the clan of the Liao Kingdom, continued to marry wives and have children in the Jin Kingdom. In the period of King Sejong Jin who overthrew King Hailing, Sejong Wan Yanyong advocated Confucianism and vigorously used non-Jurchen cadres, such as Zhang Rulin who could paint. Yelu Chucai's father, Yelulu, was promoted by Wan Yanyong to become a high-ranking cadre at this time, from Shangshu Youcheng to Shangshu Youcheng, and he was a second-rank official. Shangshu Ling is equivalent to a prime minister, and the left and right ministers under him are equivalent to deputy prime ministers. During the period of Jin Sejong, the heyday of the Jin Dynasty, he ordered the construction of the Marco Polo Bridge.

Yelulu came to have a son when he was old, and said, "I got this son when I was sixty years old. My family is also a thousand-mile horse. In the future, it will become a great weapon and it will be used by foreign countries." There is a story in "Zuo Zhuan" that Sheng Zi, the doctor of Cai Guo, interceded for the great sage Wu Ju in front of Ling Yin of the State of Chu, saying: "Although Chu has talents, Jin is practical." This Wu Ju later became the right Sima of the Chu State, and the idioms such as "great talent is late", "great sound is rare", and "one blockbuster astonishes" all came from this person. This Yelulu General Wanzai was named "Chucai" according to the allusion in "Zuo Zhuan", which means the talent of Chu State.

Yelu Chucai lost his father at the age of two and was raised by his mother. Chu Cai has read thousands of volumes and is quite familiar with Confucianism, and his ideal is to rule the world according to Confucian principles. During the period of Jin Zhangzong, Chu Cai declined to take over from his father to enter the system, but passed the imperial examination to become the deputy prefect of Kaizhou in Puyang, Henan Province. During Jin Xuanzong's period, he was promoted to Shangshu provincial member Wailang, which was a Langguan who was beyond the quota.

In the third year of Zhenyou reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Jin Dynasty (the tenth year of Genghis Khan, 1215 A.D.), the Mongolian general Mu Huali attacked Beijing, and the city fell. Chu Cai was captured and surrendered to the Mongolian Khan for foreign use. Genghis Khan fell in love with Yelu Chucai, the Khitan prince who was "eight feet long and with a beautiful beard and loud voice" among the former officials of the Jin Dynasty who had surrendered. Chu Cai followed the Great Khan on his westward expeditions, and on the way he often went on expeditions to open up borders and Anbang to rule the country. He was highly valued by the Great Khan, and he followed the army all the time, chatting with him in the morning and evening, until he conquered Xixia. After Genghis Khan's death, Yelu Chucai continued to assist Okuotai Khan, often admonishing the prohibition of killing and violence. Wo Kuotai mostly accepted it, but the Mongolian army stopped killing a little. In the third year of Wokuotai (1231 A.D.), Chu Cai served as the secretary of the Mongolian Kingdom, equivalent to the prime minister. Since then, Chucai has made every effort to establish a system of ruling the country by civil servants, establishing a tax system based on Confucianism and etiquette, persuading agriculture and mulberry, reforming the political system, compiling laws, promoting the virtuous, anti-killing, establishing household registration, anti-corruption, respecting Confucius and Mencius, and establishing ancestral temples. The founding of the country has made great contributions, and it has also made great efforts for Mongolia to accept Chinese culture.

Yelu Chucai had a high prestige in Mongolia, but he still fell out of favor because of the repeated impeachment of the favorite of Empress Ma Naizhen of Okuotai. Three years after Ma Naizhen (AD 1244), Yelu Chucai died of depression in Kulun, which is now Ulan Bator. "Suddenly it was reported that the stars of Taiwan were folded, and the scallions were still forming new dews. Simin was so moved that he shed tears and called Cang Min." It is said that Mongolia did not hear music for several days at that time, and officials and people spontaneously mourned the Khitan who had made great contributions to the founding of Mongolia. Yelu Chucai chose a cemetery outside the city of Yanjing, his ancestral home, at the foot of Wengshan Mountain, and buried his deceased wife here. This wife, Mrs. Su, was the granddaughter of Su Shi V. According to his will, the empress sent someone to transport Yelu Chucai's body back to Yanjing, his ancestral home, to be buried with his wife in this cemetery he personally chose. In the eighth year of Zhiyuan (1271), Kublai Khan moved his capital to Yanjing, established Dadu, and established Dayuan. After Yuan Wenzong ascended the throne for the second time, in the first year of Zhishun (1330 A.D.), he was posthumously named King Yelu Chucai Guangning, with the posthumous title of "Wenzheng".

From the end of the Yuan Dynasty to the Zhengzheng period, peasant uprisings broke out in the south. In the end, Zhu Yuanzhang drove away Emperor Yuan Hui who was sitting in Dadu, and replaced Yuan Jianming. In the Ming Dynasty, the Han nationality was in power, so of course there was no need for the old ministers of other races, and the Yelu clan gradually declined. In order to avoid disaster, the Yelu family gradually changed to the "Liu" surname, which was completely sinicized, and the tomb of Yelu Chucai was gradually abandoned. The Khitan people of the Liao Dynasty also had a prominent family, the Shulu family. The empress Shuluping of Yelu Abaoji, the Taizu of the Liao Dynasty, belonged to this family. Shulu was written in Chinese characters as "Xiao". This Shuluping is the famous Empress Dowager Xiao of the Liao Dynasty. After the fall of the Liao Dynasty, the Shulu family was called "Shimo" in the Jin and Yuan Dynasties. The last time I went to see Yongle Palace in Shanxi, its gate was donated by the wife of Yuan Jiang Shimobu. Since the Ming Dynasty, the Shulu tribe changed to the Han surname "Xiao", entered the Jurchen tribe, and became Manchu.

In the fifteenth year of Qianlong (AD 1750), after Lao Gan built Qingyi Garden for survey, he dug three feet here and saw the remains of the coffin. After examination, Yelu is the slough of Chucai. Lao Gan recalled the deeds of Chucai. It was the Mongols who entered the Central Plains to rule the Han people back then, just like the situation where the Manchus entered the pass to rule the Han people today. As a foreigner, Yelu Chucai assisted the Mongols in ruling the Han nationality, accepted Chinese culture, and promoted the integration of the Mongols into the Chinese nation. Lao Gan felt that Chu Cai was really a prodigy in governing the country, and his achievements were incomparably great. Then he issued an edict ordering to build a tomb and build a shrine in the same place to worship it, and wrote a poem: "The hidden spirit is always an illusion, so good and loyal." Wuhe was spared to be called Mingmo, and if there was a tomb, he was also named Bigan. Even if it is still not changed, the foundation of the hall has not yet been completed. The text expresses the virtues and brilliance of the chastity stone, but the minister will not publish it for thousands of years.

In addition, Wang Youdun was ordered to make the "Yuanchen Yelu Chucai's Tombstone Records", which reads "Chucai is a matter of Yuan Taizu and Taizong, more than 30 years old, the time is ignorant, all taxes are set, divided into counties, registered residence, Regardless of the military and civilians, they are all in charge. It is said that bowsmiths are needed to govern the bow, but the world's craftsmen are not needed to govern the world? When things are not convenient for the people, we must strive to make a lot of complaints, and some people are tired of crying for the people. Death depends on their planning. , the legal system is well established, and the people have peace. Therefore, in terms of the names of the Yuan Dynasty, Chu Cai must be the first." During the Shunzhi period in the early Qing Dynasty, Wang Shizhen, Shangshu of the Ministry of Justice, came here, probably to see if there was any open space under the Weng Mountain, so that he could bury the unclaimed corpses at Caishikou. I don't know if he found an open space, but he did leave a poem: The top of the stone urn is covered with clouds, and the pavilion on the lake is leaning on a slanting tree. The Paper Money Society Jiutangli Road, not to the Yelu Tomb by the lake. It can be seen that the tomb of Yelu Chucai was called Yelu Tomb in the Ming Dynasty.

Since Lao Gan restored Yelu's tomb and built an ancestral hall, his purpose is to teach loyalty and persuasion. But he still didn't want a foreign tomb to appear in the imperial garden, so he ordered a wall to be built from Wenchang Pavilion to the north to separate the Yelu Chucai Temple from the garden, that is, the wall from Zhichunting Restaurant to Wenchang Pavilion.

Begonia Blooming Season walked into the ancestral hall gate that was concealed.

The three north rooms are the main hall of the ancestral hall, and there are three wing rooms in the east and west. Gray tile single-eave rolling sheds and hard mountain top halls have front eaves corridors, which are connected with the back eaves corridors of the gate halls to form a circle of Chaoshou verandahs. I met a researcher from the Summer Palace Research Institute and chatted with him. He said that the ancestral hall built by Qianlong had only three halls, which should be the current North House. During the Guangxu period, it was expanded again, with a courtyard and several supporting halls. The current courtyards are all newly built according to the Guangxu shape. There are also a stone man and an imperial stele among the relics of the Qing Dynasty. I asked him why the gate hall was so out of specification? He said that when the temple was rebuilt in the past few years, the shape of the hall was mostly fabricated, and it did not follow the Qing law. After the renovation was completed, it was opened to the public for a period of time, and some statues and cases were placed in the north room. Later, I felt that it was inappropriate for everyone to pay homage to non-sacred people here, so the ancestral hall was closed, the statue case was removed, and the courtyard was assigned to the Summer Palace Research Institute to conduct scientific research.

The tomb is in the backyard and is not allowed to be seen now. Moreover, the tomb of the second son, Yeluzhu, was also found in the southeast of the tomb of Yelu Chucai and his wife. Yeluzhu once served as Prime Minister Zuo Zhongshu in Kublai Khan's dynasty. He died in the 22nd year of Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty (AD 1285). His wife is the granddaughter of Genghis Khan's younger brother, Borzhijin's family. It seems that what Yelu Chucai planned here is a family cemetery, which is ranked according to the Zhaomu system. The tomb of Yelu Chucai's couple is located in the middle, facing south from the north; the tomb of his son and his wife is located in the first Zhao seat in the southeast, facing east and west; the tomb of his grandson and his wife is reserved as the first Mu seat in the southwest, facing east from west.

The eldest grandson of Yelu Chucai, Yelu Xizheng. The most promising of the grandsons is the third grandson Yelu Xiliang, who once served as Minister of the Ministry of Rites and the Ministry of Officials. This third grandson died in the fourth year of Yuan Taiding (AD 1327), and was not buried in the ancestral grave for unknown reasons.

After seeing the Yelu Chucai Temple, come out from the gate of the courtyard wall of His Excellency Wenchang, and the famous Zhichun Pavilion is opposite.

Zhichun Pavilion is located on a small island on the water of Kunming Lake in Wenchang. There is a small wooden bridge connecting the East Dike and the small island. There are red-painted handrails on the small bridge. There was no such bridge in Qingyi Garden, but it was added when Guangxu rebuilt the Summer Palace to fit Cixi's heel. Walk across the small bridge to get a closer look at Zhichun Pavilion.

This is a square pavilion with four pillars, one room wide, and a circle of eaves. There are four towering pillars in the middle, and there are step-by-step brocade lintels between the surrounding pillars, with doors open on all sides, and Ruyi stomping up and down. On the top is the roof with raised beams and gray tiles, double eaves and four corners. The brick Xumi seat supports the terrace ridge brake, and there are three ridge beasts on the vertical ridge. The upper floor can also be called a fake building because of the partition windows. The red pillars are green, and the square beams are painted with gold thread in the official style of Su style.

Under the eaves hangs a plaque of "Zhichun Pavilion", written by Cixi. Qianlong once wrote a poem for this pavilion, saying: "everything knows about the coming of spring, why do you only know the four pillars of spring?" A benevolent person says that there is nothing wrong with benevolence, and what he enjoys (nianle) is like this.

Take a look inside it.

There is no algae well, and it is not completely exposed, but peony flowers and flat chess ceilings. The painting under the eaves in the picture tells a story. I have told this story in the post "Spring Breeze Thousand Miles of Yangzhou Road No. 6: Jinshan Temple in Zhenjiang", so I will tell you again to save you from the tiredness of reading the post.

It is said that there was a monk Huiyuan in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, who was the first ancestor of the Pure Land School. After Huiyuan became a teacher, he went to Lushan Mountain and lived in Donglin Temple. Huiyuan has a layman named Tao Yuanming, who is very good at writing pastoral poems. Tao Yuanming also had a friend who attained the Tao, Lu Xiujing, who was the nephew and grandson of Lu Xun in the state of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. Lu Xiujing is the ancestor of the Shangqing School of Taoism and one of the founders of Taoism. He wrote the first scripture of Taoism "Three Caves". He also practiced Taoism with Taixu Contemplation on Lushan Mountain, and also collected medicine and made alchemy.

One day, Tao Yuanming went to Mount Lu to visit friends, he went to Taixu Temple, and had a pleasant talk with Lu Daochang. After the Taoist master cooked the alchemy in a pot, Tao Jun and the Taoist priest went to Donglin Temple to visit Huiyuan, saying that he would introduce you to a learned old monk. The three of them talked about scriptures and Taoism in Donglin Temple, and they also freely expressed their Confucianism, and they didn't realize it was too late.

After the vegetarian banquet, after watching the moon in the temple, monk Huiyuan sent two guests Tao Lu out of the mountain gate. As they walked, the three of them sighed how bright and clean the moon was, and how hard it was for the jade rabbit to pound medicine to help Wu Gang make alchemy. At this time, there happened to be a tiger returning from watching the moon. Seeing Huiyuan crossing the Tiger Creek, he called out to Huiyuan, "Your Majesty is now crossing the boundary." The three of them couldn't help laughing at each other when they heard what Hu said. This is the story of "Three Laughs at Tiger Creek", the first event in Chinese history where Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism merged.

Lu Xiujing advocated the integration of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and everyone prayed together (recited picking bananas) and recited Confucius and Mencius. The story of "Three Smiles at Tiger Creek" is just a legend, so don't take it seriously. Huiyuan is 21 years older than Tao Jun and 72 years older than Ludao. When Lu Xiujing entered the mountain to form a hut, Huiyuan had already been flying west for many years. In the painting above, the oldest person in yellow must be Huiyuan, the old Taoist in blue must be Daoist Lu, the young man in green must be Brother Tao; the boy with the pot behind him should be Brother Tao's servant. The story of "Three Laughs at Tiger Creek" is very popular. There is a bas-relief sculpture of this story in Jinshan Temple in Zhenjiang. The ancients also used it in paintings, like the one here. He also used it to write poems. Su Shi wrote, "I came from Lushan Mountain and saw the lonely flying clouds. I met Taoist priest Lu on the road, and I knew he was a thousand-year-old man. Just ask friends at that time, Huxi has been dusted."

There is also a small island in front of Zhichun Pavilion, and there is also a small Guangxu bridge connecting Zhichun Pavilion with red lacquered railings on the small bridge. When there are tens of thousands of willow branches, stand on the small bridge and look back at the Zhichun Pavilion.

This is the first island outside the emperor's backyard, and there are buildings near the water on the island. Tachishima Zuoting, of course, is the most prophet of spring. Su Shi is one of Lao Gan's favorites. He knew that Su Shi once said "three or two peach blossoms outside the bamboo, and the spring river is a prophet of plumbing ducks", so he planted several peach trees on the island. When the peach blossoms in spring, mallard geese come to watch the flowers, and the artistic conception of Su Shi's poem immediately occurs. Now we can also appreciate the artistic conception of Su poetry created by Lao Gan here, as follows:

So you see, Zhichun Pavilion is really a place to appreciate spring. Fireworks climb this pavilion in March, and the spring is poetic and graceful.

Zhichun Pavilion and Wenchang Pavilion are adjacent to each other for rest, one high and one low, one bright and one dark, which is a contrasting technique of garden setting.

Turning around, Zhichun Pavilion and Foxiang Pavilion are far away and close, the near pavilion is more compact, and the far tower is more majestic.

When the sun is slanting in summer, it is near the water and riding the wind season. The green shadows of smoke trees and the red pillars of Xiuting Pavilion are extremely refreshing to dispel the bitter heat.

If there are rolling clouds passing by in the sky, the Zhichun Pavilion will be more elegant.

After a thunderstorm, the sky is red.

As autumn goes west, the warm sun fades away, and scattered people are Yiyi.

The beauties are in the abyss, and the mirrors are onlookers.

The beauty of Zhichun Pavilion is that it can appear in the scenery, and it can also be used as a viewing place, both of which are excellent.

Looking at the sunset from the side of Yu Zhichun Pavilion is like watching the fire from the other side.

Sunset Xishan Hongxiafei.

At night, the lights are on, and the towers are bright.

To winter, bleak.

When the snow arrives, although the emerald green is lost, the red and white are still beautiful.

Get out of Zhichun Pavilion and go south along the East Embankment of Kunming Lake. Not far away, there is a stone bridge. Here is actually a sluice, called "two hole gate". It has two water discharge holes, and when the water comes out, it looks like two dragons soaring, so it is commonly known as Erlong gate. There is a road outside the adjacent east wall, which is not called "De'a Road", but Erlongzha Road.

The water of Kunming Lake can be adjusted from this gate to the lotus pond outside the east wall, and then it can flow into the Changchun Garden and the surrounding farmlands if it continues eastward. After Emperor Qianlong built the Qingyi Garden, he wrote a poem "West Dike" for the embankment at his feet: "The West Dike is the East Dike today, and the name has never been determined. The lake is expanded to thousands of hectares of green, and the shadow of the guard is on the wall. The thorn wave business produces new plants, and the wild pheasants are forgotten when they step on the waves. The land between the embankment and the wall is spared, and the drainage is used to plant rice to see the continuous furrows." The east dike of Qingyi Garden was originally the west dike outside the west wall of Changchun Garden built by Kangxi, so the first sentence of Lao Gan's poem has the saying of west dike and east dike. The wall in the last line of Lao Gan's poem "between the embankment and the wall" refers to the west wall of the Changchun Garden, not the east wall of the Summer Palace here. The last sentence also mentioned drainage for planting rice. Beyond the East Causeway, which is now outside the east wall of the Summer Palace, is a place called Liulangzhuang. Irrigated by the water of Kunming Lake, the Jingxi rice grown in Liulang Village was one of the tribute rice in the Qing Dynasty. Until the reform and opening up, there were still large rice fields here.

Continuing to the south, you can enjoy the surrounding scenery as you walk.

Look at Longevity Hill.

Look at Xishan.

On the top of the mountain there is a seven-level pagoda, which is Yuquan Mountain, and there is a Jingming Garden in the mountain; the mountain is not only the mountain of "three mountains and five gardens", but also the garden of "three mountains and five gardens". The Yudai Bridge on the West Causeway can be seen in the distance, and the Hanxu Hall on Nanhu Island can be seen nearby.

There are also snowy scenery in winter.

Going further south, there is a stone tablet on the shore of the lake.

The four-cornered stele pavilion on the top of Juanpengxie Mountain is newly built, but the stele is an old one. The stele is made of a whole piece of white marble, with a round top, which is called "jie"; the one with a square head is called "bei". In the Qing Dynasty, regardless of the radius, they were all called monuments.

The Kunlun stone on the east embankment of Kunming Lake was erected in the 29th year of Qianlong (AD 1764). There is a one-foot-high white marble base under the stele. Water ripples are engraved around the base, and there are stone nests on both sides of the stele on the base, in which small pines and cypresses were planted in the past. Kunlun is a sacred mountain in ancient Chinese mythology. There are Yaochi, Langyuan, Zengcheng, County Garden, etc. in the mountain, all of which are fairyland. The four sides of this Kunlun stone are engraved with Laogan Yuchao's poems, most of which have been washed away by wind, frost, rain, snow and the waves of Kunming Lake. Only the east side of the backwater can still recognize Lao Gan's "Xi Di" poem.

There are still several stone tablets like the Kunlun Stone on the East Causeway in Beijing, all of which are relics of the Qianlong Dynasty. The oldest one is the Kunlun Stone on Qiongdao Island in Beihai Park, which is a stone from Genyue Garden in Bianjing, Song Dynasty. Kunlun Stone is an original type of Laogan, which only exists in Beijing, and is made by Emperor Qianlong.

Further south of Kunlun Stone is the famous copper bull.

This cow is cast in bronze and was produced in the 20th year of Qianlong's reign. Below it is a two-foot-high granite base with water ripples in relief. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, and the color varies with the content of tin. When the tin content is low, it is golden, and when the tin content is high, it is silver. This copper bull was originally golden, and Lao Gan called it "Golden Bull". Yuzhuo "Jinniu Ming" was engraved on the back of the bull with seal characters. The opening chapter is "Xia Yu ruled the river, Tie Niu passed on the praises, righteousness respects An Lan, and future generations Jing Cong". It can be seen from this that Lao Gan cast this cow to follow Xia Yu, for "An Lan" and to suppress the river demon.

The bull stared north, as if looking up.

Following its gaze, it turned out that it was looking at the Foxiang Pavilion.

The location of Tongniu happens to be a lake bay on the East Causeway. When the west wind blows, the waves on Kunming Lake are surging. The back waves pushed the front waves to the lake bay, and when they met the east embankment, these waves rushed up one after another, "bang bang bang bang" and fell on the copper bull, which was suppressed by the copper bull. So you can see that the whole body of the copper bull is not dark green, but dark red, which means that the oxide layer has been "urged" by the waves to drop a lot. The bronze censers you see in temples, etc., can see the original gold in places that are often explored by pilgrims, which is the true color of bronze. The Tongniu used to have yellow spots that were touched, but railings were installed later to prevent it from being touched.

During the period of Qingyi Garden, it went north from Wenchang Pavilion and circled the back of Longevity Mountain, but there was a palace wall there. There is no wall outside the East Dike, it is open to the outside. During the Summer Palace period, when it was rebuilt during the Guangxu period, a palace wall was built from Wenchang Pavilion to the south outside the East Dike, and a new palace gate was built behind the bronze bull, referred to as "New Palace Gate", which is still in use today.

This newly built palace gate is a bit like a simplified palace gate. Three rooms with one opening, raised beams, gray tiles and single eaves, hard mountain top, solid couch door leaf on the central pillar, and front and back are coffered roads. The newly built Gongmen Road opposite the palace gate is Guangxu's new imperial road, leading to Xiyuan.

Inside the newly built palace gate is the East Embankment, and on the top of the embankment is a wooden archway with four towering pillars and three floors.

The upper floor is a hard mountain top with bucket arches, beams, gray tiles and single eaves. The beams are painted with gold double dragons, seals and xuanzi. "Yanxu" is written on the front of the forehead facing east, and "Shu Yun" is written on the back. If there is no signature, it should not be the subject of Guangxu or Cixi, and the two of them will not fail to sign. Yan: introduction, welcome; Asahi: the first day of the rising sun, the day of rising. Yanxu is to greet the sunrise. Shu: Stretch. Shu Yun is the cloud that unfolds forward from here. Yu Wentai's Geng Xin in the Northern Zhou Dynasty said that "the cloud is flooded with volumes, and the sun is immersed in the sun".

After passing Tongniu, there is the last building of the East Causeway on the open land, which is an octagonal square pavilion, also known as the octagonal pavilion.

Below the Bafang Pavilion is a three-foot-high octagonal green brick platform, with tiger skin stones pasted on the green bricks. There is a four-foot-high green brick wall around the base of the platform. A wall of this height is called a parapet because it is as high as the chest; if it is placed on the four sides of the roof terrace or on both sides of the city wall, it is called the parapet. Because of such a circle of parapets, the Taigen seems to be a courtyard. Although the courtyard is octagonal, it only opens doors and steps on the east, west, north, south, and four sides, and three sides are bluestone hanging belts, and only the west side is Ruyi. Stepping down from the west side, the embankment stone on the shore of the lake is under your feet. It is probably because you are afraid of falling into the water when entering or leaving the pavilion. In recent years, the Summer Palace has closed the Bafang Pavilion during the peak season. From March to October every year, tourists can only see it outside the courtyard wall.

The eight-square pavilion is nested in the center of the platform, and there is a three-foot-high green brick base below it, and this time there are hanging belts on all sides. On this base is the Bafang Pavilion. Bafang Pavilion is a gazebo, there is neither wall nor partition between the pillars, so it looks like a lot of red pillars at first glance. Let's take a look at its column structure first, and then talk about its bay.

Its plane is a regular octagon, with two pillars in each direction, east, west, north, south, and a circle in the middle, with two pillars on each side, a total of eight heavenly pillars; In this way, when you look at it from the four directions of east, west, north, south, each direction is three bays. Outside this eaves column, there is a circle of eaves porch, with two columns on each side, a total of eight porch columns. These Tongtian columns, eaves columns and porch columns are all columns, a total of twenty-four. Two square columns are added between the two porch columns in eight directions, a total of sixteen. The position of the square columns is directly facing the eaves columns and the Babel columns. From eight directions, you can see through the two columns at a glance. The position of the pillars is quite precise. Therefore, although the Bafang Pavilion looks like a set of pillars from a distance, you can see the opposite scenery from the center of the eight directions, just like a hallway. Wonderful, right?

Underneath all the pillars are bluestone bases. Between the pillars of the porch, there are step by step brocade lattice flower seat stools and lintels, with doors opening from east to west, north to south.

The roof of this octagonal pavilion is a gray tile with double eaves and an octagonal pointed roof, and a brick-built bowl-covered ridge brake. There are spine snouts and five spine beasts on the vertical ridge.

Its roof structure is that the beams are directly erected on the top of the columns, without brackets, and there are beams connecting the inner and outer three-story columns. The inside of the roof is completely built in the open, and the central structure is eight pillars reaching to the sky. The beams, beams, and trusses on it are built up layer by layer until the highest point, which cannot be seen from the outside. Eight eaves columns can be seen outside, on which are false buildings and waist eaves built with beams, fangs, purlins and backing boards. On the top of the porch columns are beams and panels, supporting the rafters and purlins under the eaves.

Although the roof of the Bafang Pavilion is very complicated, the structure is actually almost the same as the roof structure of the Bafang Pavilion in the previous episode of Jiqingxuan. The octagonal pavilion of Jiqingxuan is not big, and double eaves can be erected on a circle of pillars. This octagonal pavilion is too big, and it must have Tongtian pillars and eaves pillars to build double eaves. If you stand in the Bafang Pavilion and look up at the roof structure, it is not a caisson, but the same roof beam, truss and purlin structure as the Jiqingxuan Bajiao Pavilion. The four pavilions on the promenade are also octagonal pavilions, and the interior of the roof is also completely exposed, and you can also see the same structure.

The beams and beams of the Bafang Pavilion are all painted in the official Soviet style, and many gold threads were painted on the hoops. Many of them were omitted during the repairs in recent years for the sake of economy and revolution.

The shackle-shaped column bases and these official Su-style gold thread paintings indicate the royal status of this octagonal pavilion. In addition, this Bafang Pavilion is the largest pavilion among the existing ancient buildings in China.

It is said that there was originally a plaque of "Kuoru Pavilion" hanging under the eaves of the Bafang Pavilion facing east. The word "Koru" first came from "Fa Yan" written by Yang Xiong in the Han Dynasty, in which there is "the ancient Yang Mosailu, which was created by Mencius, Kuoru also". The Yang Zhe Yang Zhu and the Mo Zhe Mo Zhai (Nian Zhai), the two are the opposites of Confucianism in the Warring States Period. They can speak and argue, blocking the way of speech. Mencius wrote books to refute them and clarify the confusion in the academic world. Kuoru is to clarify thinking. This is not easy to explain Kuo Ruting, but it can be better explained with a poem by Lu Guimeng in the Tang Dynasty: The master continues again, and the haze ends in Kuo Ru. Oh, Kuoru means to clarify the scenery.

The Kuoru Pavilion was built in the 17th year of Qianlong. Lao Gan once wrote a small poem "Kuoru Pavilion": "The bank of the Xuting lake looks down on the clear stream, and if you keep going here, you will also leave the boat. Invest in my heart." The plaque of Laogan's poems hanging in the pavilion is one written by Laogan when he passed the pavilion by boat in the 35th year, and another poem written in the 36th year. The two poems are what Lao Gan saw and thought when he saw the scenery on both sides of the strait when he entered the garden by boat, and they were not specially written for Kuo Ruting. One of the poems "Jin Zhou to Wanshou Mountain Landing": "When the long river is not long, the lake enters Kunming. It is suitable for the yellow head to drop the sail, so I teach the green bird to swim in the clouds. Let's talk about the scenery on Jianyu Road. It’s just a matter of enlightenment before the autumn of the pen. The bottom line is suitable for the Yixing of Shan Rao, and it seems appropriate for Tian Gong to Jia’an.”

There are written plaques on all eight sides of the pavilion. Except for the two old poem plaques above, the rest are excerpts from "Wen Xin Diao Long" copied by Cixi.

Look at the Kuoru Pavilion and the two landmark buildings in the Summer Palace in the same frame, one is the Buddhist Incense Pavilion on Longevity Hill; the other is the Seventeen-Arch Bridge on Kunming Lake.

When the sun goes down, the number of tourists around Kuoruting will not decrease, but there will be many photographers gathering. In the Summer Palace, there are several places where people check in to watch the sunset. One is Zhichun Pavilion; the other is Kuoru Pavilion. There is also a relatively small place is Le Shoutang Wharf, which is the platform outside Shuimu Ziqin Hall. Qianlong said that the sunset is the best place, but no one takes pictures. They all pass by and miss it. It is under the eaves and corridors of the Xijia building.

The place where the most people gather to take pictures at Kuoruting is the cruise ship wharf outside the west gate of the pavilion.

The tripods are lined up, and people stand airtight. I went closer and took a look. In the front row were Hasselblad and Mamiya 120 SLRs, as well as the owners of Leica and Phase One. It seemed that there was a place to auction the film. In the middle row are the owners of Nikon and Canon cameras, and it is estimated that they took pictures and posted them on Moments. Others with miscellaneous brand phones on their chests can only stand in the back row, which is self-entertainment. I looked at the camera in my hand, sighed, and took the picture above while hiding outside those professional photographers. I'm not like them, I took the footage to illustrate the post.

After taking the picture above, I walked away from the crowded camera position and walked around Kuoruting. Look at its dark side.

Look at its sunny side again.

Time flies, and time flies by, so you must capture Dong Jun's figure and Kuo Ruting to take a photo together.

Who is Dong Jun you ask? Qu Yuan sang in "Nine Songs Dongjun" that "the twilight will come out of the east, and shine on my threshold and Fusang". The Tun he mentioned is the sun that comes out from the east to shine on Fusang.

Since "Kuoru" means clarification, after the rain, you should appreciate the clarification of Longevity Mountain in Kunming Lake, as follows.

After passing the Kuoru Pavilion, continue to the south, until the southernmost Nanruyi Gate, there are no stands, no pavilions and only willows on the east dike.

You can see in this picture that although the Liujiu River is open, the eight or nine geese have not yet arrived, and the eyes are full of desolation. The real one is:

The river willows on the dike are declining, and the broken branches and leaves are sad. There are no crows in the setting sun, and the sun and the moon do not open.

There are not many buildings on the East Causeway, but they are all important. Wenchang Pavilion is one of the gates of Qingyi Garden, on which the Emperor Wenchang and his husband are in charge of the security of Qingyi Garden. There is Erlong gate outside Wenchang Pavilion, which controls the water level of Changchun Garden and Liulangzhuang rice fields, which is responsible for the national economy and people's livelihood. There is also a copper bull in the distance, which is responsible for controlling the water level of Kunming Lake. This is not a pagoda town river demon, but a copper bull. There is Zhichun Pavilion in Wenchang Pavilion, which is the nearest viewing platform to the imperial residence. There is a pavilion outside the pass, which is the largest viewing platform in the garden. There is an old saying in the past, "Looking at the mountain and running to death", it says that even if the mountain is in sight, a horse with curly hair and green mane will die of exhaustion if it runs to the bottom of the mountain. You can see the Longevity Mountain from Kuoruting, but you can't run away, because the emperor can take a boat. Even if he walks on the East Causeway, he does not ride a horse. Instead, as he said in his poem "Entering the Boat to Longevity Hill and Landing", "Talk about the scenery on the shoulder road, and just start thinking before the autumn." It was just sitting in a small sedan chair for two people, looking at the scenery, while thinking about whether to drink a pot of Qiu Bailu after getting off the sedan chair.

Dongdi will definitely turn his head away after watching it, and we will talk about it in the next episode.

(to be continued)