There is a small courtyard from the west gate of Leshou Hall. On the north side of the courtyard is Yang Renfeng, and on the south side is the veranda from Yulan Hall. The veranda can lead to a hanging flower door on the west side of the courtyard.

This door is amazing. Viewed from this side, it is a hanging flower gate with a corridor on one side inside, and this side should be called the inside of the gate. But its door plaque is hung on this side, which also shows that this side is outside the door. Passing through this gate is the world-famous Summer Palace corridor. This hanging flower door is the door to enter the Queen Mother's dormitory along the corridor, and it is also the door to enter the corridor from the Empress Dowager's dormitory.

The gate ticket is gray tile with single eaves rolling shed resting on the top of the mountain, and under the eaves is a "Invitation to the Moon Gate" bucket plaque, which is bilingual in Manchu and Chinese, and written in Guangxu's handwriting. Just looking at the bilingual Manchu and Chinese, it shows that this plaque is still the official system when Guangxu rebuilt the Summer Palace, but is it still the same plaque?

The term "inviting the moon" was often read by literati in ancient times, and the most memorable one is Li Bai's "Drinking Alone under the Moon": "A pot of wine among the flowers, drinking alone without a blind date. Toast to invite the bright moon, and the shadow becomes three people" . Look at poor Li Bai, he is alone among the flowers under the moonlight, he has no choice but to drink alone, and insists on three people. It is a very sad thing for ancient literati to chant poems about inviting the moon. If you have wine but no company, you have to invite the moon. Masters of poetry from all walks of life have invitations to the moon, and they all sing sad tunes. Emperor Qianlong certainly did not toast without a companion, so why did he inscribe this gate as "inviting the moon"? He must have wanted to announce the moon to accompany him when he visited Qingyi Garden at night, so he wrote "Inviting the Moon" in order to show the emperor's grace and grandeur, and to express his elegance and coquettishness.

After reading this plaque, stand under the door and look up, and you will see a painting on the horizontal drape. The horizontal drape is also called walking horse board, because people often sing "horse, walk slowly" and draw some slow-moving horses on that board.

Looking at the six bridges on the long embankment in the middle of the lake in the picture, this seems to be the scenery of West Lake in Hangzhou during the Qianlong period. It must be the beautiful scenery of West Lake recorded by the painter who accompanied Qianlong when he went to the south of the Yangtze River. Judging from this perspective, it should be painted by the painter standing on the Baochu Pagoda. Since there is no signature, I don't know which painter it is. The original painting of Qingyi Garden has long been lost, and this painting can only be repainted in the Guangxu period at the earliest. After the Republic of China, the Summer Palace was not maintained for many years, and this painting must have been weathered. New China has repaired the corridor many times. I have seen a newly renovated corridor. These paintings are also very new and should be repainted.

After reading this painting, you have to take two steps forward and look back. There is also a painting behind the horizontal drape.

There is no provenance for this painting, and it is not known where the real scene was modeled. The high pavilion at the left side of the bridge looks like the Eight Square Pavilion at the end of the Seventeen-Arch Bridge in the Summer Palace, and the low pavilion on the right is like the "clouds, water and light" water pavilion next to the "Broken Bridge Remnant Snow" monument in the West Lake. This stone arch bridge has five holes, which is different from the West Lake Baidi Broken Bridge and the Seventeen-hole Bridge in the Summer Palace.

The two pictures on the door are painted landscape pictures. From this picture of the Five-Arch Bridge, we can already clearly see the Western perspective landscape painting, quite in the style of the Venetian school of painting. Take a look at one of the "Forty Scenes of the Old Summer Palace" drawn by the imperial painters of the Qianlong Order. The style is completely different. This is what I saw in the Forbidden City Clock Museum, and the full copy is now displayed in the Old Summer Palace.

Therefore, it is certain that the two paintings on the door of invitation to the moon are not works of the Qianlong period, but it is possible to say that they were painted during the Guangxu period.

From this door to the promenade, this promenade is really a man, which is the old saying "a man can bend and stretch". Entering from the Yueyue Gate, the first section of the walk is simple.

Going to the back, there are also curves.

The promenade is the longest in the world because of its length, and the longest veranda in the world is more than 700 meters. Chinese ancient buildings still have to be described in Chinese. The four pillars of an ancient building with a roof on top of each other are called a house, and the veranda is also described by "jian". Those who have trouble counted down the corridors of the Summer Palace. There are more than 270 rooms in total, and each room is about the same size. Below the veranda is a one-and-a-half-foot base, and square columns support a gray tile roll-up shed hanging from the top of the mountain. Between the pillars of the porch, there is an upside-down lintel on the top, and a stool lintel on the bottom, with the word "工" latticework. The interior of the roof is completely open, without a ceiling.

This veranda traverses from east to west along the north edge of Kunming Lake. The east end is connected to the east embankment of Kunming Lake through the south corridor of Leshou Hall, and the west end extends to Shizhang Pavilion on the westernmost side of Kunming Lake, which is the Shifang Wharf.

Although the veranda is famous for its length, the most attractive thing about it is the ancient Chinese paintings. The beams inside and outside the roof are covered with pictures of landscapes, flowers, birds, fish and insects, and stories of characters. After a team of over 1,000 experts counted with their fingers, it is still unknown how many paintings there are inside and outside the gallery, because the fingers of the experts were exhausted after counting 14,000.

Most of the paintings in the corridor are Soviet-style paintings, a small number of scrolls are on the lower part of the beams, and there are basically no seals. Check out the Soviet-style spinner painting under this beam.

Su-style painted paintings were originally spread among the people in Suzhou and Hangzhou. They entered Beijing in the Ming Dynasty and gradually developed into official Su-style painted paintings, which became classic decorations in royal gardens. It is difficult to see the official paintings of the Ming Dynasty. The Zhongcui Palace and the Chuxiu Palace of the Forbidden City still retain the original Ming Dynasty paintings on the beams above the ceiling; These Ming Dynasty paintings in the Forbidden City are not open, we can't see them. Su-style painted paintings began to enter the royal palace gardens on a large scale in the Qing Dynasty. There are Qing Dynasty royal Su-style painted paintings on the corridors of Zhongcui Palace, Changchun Palace and Chuxiu Palace in the Forbidden City. The buildings of the Old Summer Palace have been destroyed, and the painted paintings on the corridors of the Summer Palace are the largest official Soviet-style painted paintings that can be seen now, and they are very precious.

Some of the Su-style paintings on the promenade are painted on the longitudinal beams, on both sides of each beam. This is called Fangxin painting.

The size of the sides of the stringers is limited, and Fangxin usually draws small garden landscapes. You should pay attention to the decorative patterns on the hoops on both sides of the square heart. The lines are all powdered and gilded. This is called gold thread painting, which belongs to advanced Soviet-style painting.

On the side of the promenade, the stacked beams, purlins and backing boards are used as a drawing board, on which larger pictures can be drawn. These are all semicircular furoshiki paintings, and the frame is also called furoshiki. Painting in the baggage, the painter can do whatever he wants. Take a look at the Su-style paintings with burdens. On both sides, there are also patterns of gold hoops pasted with leek powder, which are gold thread paintings.

There is also a Su-style color painting called Haiyan color painting. There is no burden, square heart or various picture frames, and things are directly painted on the background color. There is no such sea wall painting in the corridor of the Summer Palace. I have seen it in the main hall of Pudu Temple outside the Donghua Gate. It is said that it is the original painting in the Shunzhi period, which is doubtful.

On the horizontal beams below are painted gold-pasted Ssangyong and seals, and on the windward board above are painted in the Su style. There are cranes, vases, tripods, elephants, and even a cage of steamed stuffed buns. It can be seen that everything can be painted in Haiqian color painting.

The Soviet-style paintings on the corridors of the Summer Palace are full of styles and all-encompassing. Look at this, towers and pavilions. "The pavilions are divided into dangerous places, and the towers surround the Quchi".

These paintings on the corridor have experienced countless ups and downs, and the most recent overhaul was in the 1980s. In order to show their elegant demeanor, they have to be repaired every few years. The most recent one was before the Beijing Olympic Games, and it has been more than ten years. It can be seen that some painted paintings are obviously newer than the hoops on both sides, and these painted paintings have been repaired. In recent years, many buildings have been rebuilt in the Summer Palace, and the promenade will soon be overhauled.

Before the promenade is overhauled and repainted, the original old work on the wood must be cleaned up, and the putty floor sticks will be remade on the wood, which is equivalent to putting putty on our current decoration. The ancient sticks were marinated with pig blood, tung oil, flour and brick ash according to a secret recipe. Now basically still use the ancient method, the original formula, the original taste. Several layers are scraped on the wood, and linen is pasted in the middle. Royal buildings are usually "two hemp and six ashes", with eight layers. In ancient times, painting was done directly on the ground stick, which was called hard work. Now, decorations such as headbands are still directly painted on the ground sticks, but the colored paintings in the burden are not directly painted. Painters paint on paper in advance in the factory, and then paste the painted paper on the floor stick, which is called soft work. Hard work has very high requirements on painters, and now there are not so many senior painters during the overhaul and repainting, and the construction period is too late. Hard work is slow work and careful work, and the paintings are more durable. Soft work is fast, but the durability of paintings is much worse.

You can see in the above picture that the painted paper has fallen off, and you can directly see the floor stick below. In order to maintain the original color for a long time, these paintings must use special mineral pigments. Some pigments still need to be imported, which were introduced when the enamel was made.

Look at this, the Chinese Yunyan culture, "On the top of Fuyan in Jingyi, the guest pavilion is among the clouds. The high city overlooks the sunset, and the Jipu reflects Cangshan Mountain".

Look at this, two yellow sparrows have to fly, flying east wind to see peonies.

Look at this, Xiao Shu's phoenix branches, flying in the posture of a phoenix.

The most attractive thing in the corridors of the Summer Palace is the paintings of the characters and stories on the inside and outside of the sides. In fact, such paintings do not account for a large proportion. Let's look at a picture like this.

Because there is a story behind the character story painting, everyone likes it. The painting above is the story of Cai Yong (Nian Yong) and Jiao Weiqin. Cai Yong, courtesy name Bojie, was a writer in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. During the period of Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty, he was an official in the court, and his position was up to Yilang. When Shi Changshi made a disturbance, Cai Yong advised Emperor Ling to rectify it. He offended the bad officials and was sentenced to beheaded. Although Emperor Ling spared Yong's death, he exiled him to the frontier of Hanberia. The following year, Cai Yong was amnesty, and on his way back to Beijing, Cai Yong heard that he had been slandered by bad officials again. Fearing that there would be hidden arrows in Beijing, he had to travel south to take refuge in the urban-rural fringe of Shaoxing. Until Emperor Ling died and Emperor Xian ascended, Dong Zhuo became Sikong and ruled the government, and together with Situ Wangyun and Taiwei Yuan Wei, he was called the Three Dukes. Dong Zhuozheng recruited Cai Yong, who entered Wudi 12 years ago, to return to Beijing as a sacrificial wine officer. He is the chief academic officer and the head of the doctor. There was no Guozijian in the Han Dynasty, but the Guozixue was established in the Jin Dynasty, and the Guozijian was established in the Sui Dynasty.

Cai Yong recorded a lot of history, and was good at poetry, poetry and Fu, and wrote many works. His calligraphy is a must, and Cai Ti and Han Li have a great influence on later generations. Cai Yongqian loves his work, and he has also made great contributions to ancient silk and bamboo equipment. Among the four famous qins in ancient times, there is Cai Yong's Jiaowei qin; the other three are the bell of Duke Huan of Qi, the winding beam of King Zhuang of Chu, and the green Qi of Sima Xiangru. When Cai Yong took refuge in Wu, he also demolished the bamboo wall of Ke Ting to make a flute. You see, the qin is the head of the silk, and the flute is the head of the bamboo, both of which are made by Cai Yong.

This painting on the corridor of the Summer Palace tells the story of Cai Yong and Jiao Weiqin. It is said that when Cai Yong took refuge in the outskirts of Shaoxing, he lived in a local Shansou's house. Of course, Shansou's family had a poor wife (Nianao) and a young daughter, so he would not be alone. One day, Shannu was cooking beans and burning the Osmunda, Cai Yong suddenly heard a loud sound amidst the Osmunda burning. Get up hurriedly and turn to the front of the stove, and see a tree lying in the fire in the stove hole. Cai Yong took out the wood, stamped out the remaining fire, and made a lyre from it. The sound of this piano is very special, the bass is deep, the treble is exciting; Because of the burn marks left on the tail of the piano, it is named Jiaoweiqin.

Seeing Cai Yong's interpretation of the sound in this way, and also his high-spirited appearance, Shan Sou took his daughter to marry him. In this way, I lingered in the mountains for several years. Until the sixth year of Zhongping (189 AD), Emperor Ling died, Emperor Xian ascended, and Dong Zhuo was promoted. Zhuo Muming sent people to Wu to dig Yong, and Yong came out. When Cai Yong came to Beijing to be an official, he didn't bring Shan's wife and Weng Yu with him, not even the Jiaoweiqin, and was escorted away naked. In the third year of Emperor Xian Chuping (192 A.D.), Dong Zhuo was assassinated and died. Cai Yong sighed Zhuo's sorrow at Situ Wang Yun's banquet, angered Wang Yun and was convicted, sent to prison, and finally died at the bottom of the ranks. Empress Wang Yun regretted it and ordered a generous burial. This colorful painting in the corridor of the Summer Palace shows the scene of old man Wu Dishan and his wife and daughter coming to visit Cai Yong's grave, and they also brought the Jiaoweiqin. Because the people in the mountains did not understand the rhythm, this piano was kept in the royal collection of several dynasties until it was lost among the people in the Ming Dynasty.

Cai Yong had a daughter, Cai Yan, named Wenji. Cai Wenji is one of the four talented women in ancient China. She galloped in the literary world in the late Han Dynasty with the Jian'an Seven Sons, and was the backbone of the Cao Cao Literary Youth Club.

In fact, Cai Yong was from Chenliu County (now near Kaifeng, Henan Province). He became an official in the early years of Emperor Ling after marrying a wife at home. The Yuan Dynasty opera "Pipa Ji" wrote a legend of Cai Yong, saying that after he left home and went to Beijing, he was the number one scholar in high school because of his talents. This is a joke, and there was no number one scholar in the Han Dynasty. Niu, the prime minister of the imperial court, took a fancy to Cai Yongbo, and recruited him as his son-in-law, and was granted congratulations by the emperor. Later, both Cai Yong's parents were sent to death by Zhao Wuniang, and Wuniang went to Beijing to find her husband. After going through many ordinary hardships and obstacles, Uncle Wu Niang is finally reunited, and the three of Cai Niu and Zhao share a family bond, and Wuerwala has a happy reunion. Prime Minister Niu was also very happy, and asked the emperor for an imperial edict, which ended with "Prime Minister Niu sent the imperial edict to Chenliu to represent Cai's family". In this play, it is said that Cai Bojie is even a filial person, but some people say that he is an unscrupulous person who stopped his wife for the second time and remarried, and finally abandoned Wu Dishan's wife. Cai Yong's character is quite controversial in history, but his talent is fair. Is this Cai Wenji from Zhao Wuniang, a girl from the Niu family, or a girl from the land of Wu? unknown.

There are four octagonal pavilions on the promenade. People say that they are themed on the four seasons. Let's go down and have a look. Going from east to west, the first one is Liujia Pavilion.

Xin Qiji hurts the tune of spring: "It can dissipate even more. After a few winds and rains, spring returns in a hurry. Cherish the long spring and fear that the flowers will bloom early, not to mention the countless reds. Stay in spring, see the saying, the end of the world. language". Look, the paper is full of tears of spring. Qianlong didn't use those "resentments" and "pity", but titled "retaining beauty", with less negative energy, singing spring without seeing "spring". In order to explain the meaning of "Liujia", Qianlong wrote a poem "Liujia Pavilion" by himself, which said: "The bricks facing the sun are gradually green and sprouting, don't explain that because of life, you will see the scenery." Just like the spring is not yet swaying, it is very good to sleep less.

The second one is Jilan Pavilion.

Qianlong's own question: Thousands of hectares of Kunming have not made waves, and the wind and waves are still and the pond is safe. If you ask where you are on the pavilion, you should look at it from the ice when you step on it. It turns out that Lao Gan said that standing under the eaves in the middle of winter to watch the scenery, seeing the waves in summer are sent under the hard ice in winter. This pavilion should be a winter pavilion.

The third is Qiushui Pavilion.

In the Preface to the Pavilion of the King of Teng by Wang Bo of the Tang Dynasty, there is a sentence "The sunset and the lone bird fly together, and the autumn water is the same color as the sky". This pavilion is inscribed with poems.

The fourth is Qingyao Pavilion.

Qianlong wrote a poem for this pavilion: "One green spring is clear and ten thousand hectares of waves are far away, so what is the plan?" Bamboo is famous far and wide, and it is nothing short of a mistake. You see, there are spring waves and spring bamboos, and it is obvious that spring is used to express feelings.

It turns out that Qianlong did not regard these four pavilions as titles of spring, summer, autumn and winter, so let's look at them as four independent pavilions, that is, two spring pavilions and one autumn and one winter.

The architectural forms of these four pavilions are the same. Let’s take a closer look at Liujia Pavilion as an example. Eight-column brackets lift beams, gray tiles and octagonal spires, gray bricks and orb ridge brakes. The east-west connects the promenade, and the north-south steps are stepped on. There are lintels above and below the columns, and Su-style painted beams. The interior is completely exposed and made, look at the superstructure.

A square frame is built with truss beams in the compartment on the top of the eight columns, corner trusses are added to the four corners of the square frame, and a small octagonal building is built on the top of the square frame. The one above is the roof structure, not the algae well. This structure is a typical practice of octagonal pavilions with double eaves, the lower eaves are large and the upper eaves are small. There are also octagonal pavilions with special structures in royal buildings. There are two octagonal well pavilions with four pillars in the Royal Garden of the Forbidden City, which are very special. It is converted into an octagon by installing a corner beam on the top of the four columns, and then building an octagon roof on top. The four pillars directly support an octagonal roof, which is amazing.

The four pavilions are all painted with red pillars, and the blue and green base color of the beams and beams, which is very formal and contrasts with the cool color of the whole body of the promenade. The royal building standard is to paint the door and window pillars that can see the sun in red, and the beams and beams under the eaves that cannot see the sun are painted in cool colors such as blue or green. The promenade is all in cool colors to indicate that it is a garden building, not an official building.

Although it is an octagonal pavilion, it faces south from the north, and the plaque of "Liujia Pavilion" is hung under the eaves on the south side. There is also a plaque on the north side, because it is not on the forehead, and the back of the head is also called "occipital", this plaque is called pillow plaque.

The plaque reads "Xian Ti Yu Ying". It is Xuan, ancient style, and beautiful jade. Title: The rafter head decorated with jade; Yuying: the elite in jade. I said earlier that Sima Xiangru, a writer of the Western Han Dynasty, once wrote "Shanglin Fu" to praise the palace of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty; Made by Emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty after he visited Ganquan Palace. Yang Xiong said in it that when the emperor was sitting in the tower of the palace, there was a saying, "Muran, the emperor, is in the pavilion on the Zhentai, and he is inscribed on Yuying, and he is in the middle of the scorpion". Qianlong used this sentence here, as saying that Qingyi Garden is comparable to Ganquan Palace, with carved beams and painted buildings, like beautiful jade.

There are also plaques inside the pavilion, which are hung on the top beams of the east and west pillars. Look west.

The plaque reads "Wensiguang quilt", which comes from "Wen Xin Diao Long", "Today's sacred calendar is flourishing, Wen Siguang quilt, Haiyue descends the gods, talented and beautiful hair, riding a flying dragon in Tianqu, driving a horse in thousands of miles ". Wensi means the wisdom and virtue of the emperor, the light is everywhere, and the light is wide. Chairman Mao once said that the Yellow Emperor was "intelligent and wise, and he is only fascinated by people".

Look to the east again.

The plaque reads "Grass and Tree Ben (Nian Bo) Hua", and the vegetation blooms beautiful flowers. In the East Wing Room of Heyiyun Hall, there is a plaque saying "Algae painting presents auspiciousness". Tigers and leopards are beautifully condensed; clouds and clouds are carved with colors that surpass the beauty of painters; grass and trees are flourishing, and they are not as wonderful as brocade craftsmen."

From the picture above, you can also see large colored paintings on the east and west doors. On the lower side of the "Grass and Tree Benhua" in the east is a piece of "Taoyuan Wenjin", which is based on Lao Tao's "Peach Blossom Spring": "I was shocked when I saw the fisherman. I asked where I came from. I answered it. I have to go back home. He set up wine to kill chickens for food. Hearing about this person in the village, he came here to inquire. Since Yun Xianshi avoided the chaos of the Qin Dynasty, he led his wife to come to this desperate situation. He did not return, so he separated himself from outsiders. I don't know there is Han, regardless of Wei and Jin. This person is one by one. I have heard it all, and I am sorry. The rest of the people went back to their homes, and they all had wine and food. Stopped for a few days and resigned. There is a saying in this place: "It is not enough for outsiders. '". Inquiring about Taoyuan is a common theme for painters, who either focus on the landscape of Taoyuan or the figures in Taoyuan. The most famous "Taoyuan Wenjin Tu" is a seven-foot-long scroll painted by Wen Zhengming, who was as famous as Tang Bohu in the Ming Dynasty.

The color painting on the horizontal under the plaque of "Wensiguangbei" in the west has been seriously damaged, and the reason can no longer be seen. A knowledgeable tourist next to him said that it was Sun Wukong who led the monkeys and grandchildren to fight against the heavenly soldiers and generals. I don’t think the tourist’s age was born in the Guangxu period, or he may have been born in the Republic of China. He has seen the true face of this painting.

The plaques of this Liujia Pavilion are all brand new. I don't know if they have been refreshed or reset recently. Even if there is no direct light, those golden characters are still glowing.

The other three pavilions also have plaques hanging inside and outside, so I won’t go into details one by one, let’s just pick a few and have a look.

Look inside Jilan Pavilion.

The inner plaque on the east side reads "Evening clouds condense purple". In the Song Dynasty Wang Gui's ode poem "Yiyun and Wang Xuanhui Feng'an Zhongtaiyi God Statue", there is a line "the dawn breaks the red floating gate, and the evening clouds condense purple to protect the Zhouyuan". Xiyun faces Xiaori, Ningzi faces Pohong, Zhou Yuan faces Mengong. It is said that Lao Tzu carries purple energy with him when he travels, because the name "Zi" is an auspicious color, and the emperor likes to use it.

The colorful painting on the horizontal plaque under the plaque is the story in the sixty-fifth chapter of "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms".

Look inside Qiushui Pavilion.

The inner plaque on the east side reads "Reporting the Sutra System". It comes from the sentence in "Wen Xin Diao Long", "If you report the scriptures with the system, and judge the elegance with the rich words, you will look up at the mountains to cast copper, and boil the sea to make salt." Inheritance is to follow and follow; scriptures are Confucian classics. In a broad sense, reporting scriptures means following the ancestral system. The formula is the law and the system. The scripture system means that the current law is formulated according to the precedents of the ancestors.

The colorful painting on the lower side of the plaque is "Yue Fei Picking Xiaoliang King with a Spear", which is also a well-known story.

Pillow plaque "Three Shows are divided into glory".

The term "three show points of glory" comes from a song in the first year of Song Taizu's Jiande, a suburban temple court meeting, "morning application expresses differences, three show points of glory", the author is unknown. Sanxiu means Ganoderma lucidum that blooms three times a year, the legendary fairy grass, "Nine Songs" has "Picking Sanxiu in the mountains, Shi Leilei and Ge vines". Divide means diversification, and prosperity is the blooming of plants and trees. In "Ode to Orange", there is a saying "the green leaves are full of glory, and the divergence is gratifying". The three show points are the meaning of the fairy grass blooming one after another.

If you pay attention, you will find that the plaques in the four pavilions on the promenade are basically written by Cixi, and only the plaques of Liujia Pavilion, Qiushui Pavilion and pillow plaques are inscribed with "Qianlong Imperial Pen". When the Summer Palace was rebuilt during the Guangxu period, all the original plaques written by Qianlong were lost. These three plaques should be remade. I wonder if they were remade by Guangxu or New China? It is very rare to see the Qianlong plaque in the Summer Palace.

The inner plaque on the west side reads "Deyin Wang Yi".

Deyin Wang Yi (Nianhui). Deyin: good words. Wang Yi: The appearance of great water is both deep and wide. You can use a sentence in Li Bai's "Ming Tang Fu" to explain Deyin Wang's.濊 is the meaning of the emperor's grace, a sour word with a lot of elegance.

The colorful painting on the horizontal drape under the plaque is "Seven Sages in the Bamboo Forest". These seven people are Ji Kang, Ruan Ji, Shan Tao, Xiang Xiu, Liu Ling, Wang Rong and Ruan Xian. They are cultural people in the late Cao Wei period of the Three Kingdoms. "Bamboo forest" is a nickname added by later generations, which is taken from the "Zhulin Jingshe" in Tianzhu. The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove inherited the spirit of Jian’an literature. Among the representative figures of Jian’an literature, there are seven people, known as the Seven Sons of Jian’an (Kong Rong, Chen Lin, Wang Can, Xu Gan, Ruan Yu, Ying Yu and Liu Zhen). The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove often gather together to drink and chant, and most of their characters have Jian'an style, which is called "Bamboo Grove Metaphysics". In fact, the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Forest did not have a bamboo forest to hook up with, so you can see that there is no bamboo in that painting.

Look inside Qingyao Pavilion.

The inner plaque on the west side is "Yunyuheheqing", which is a sentence from a Mingtang song in the Sui Dynasty, "Luganquan is white, Yunyuheheqing". It is to praise that the dew in the whole world is sweet and sweet, and the spring water is white and white; the clouds are floating in the sky, and the clear water in the river is flowing. Haiyan and Heqing mean peace in the world.

The colorful painting on the horizontal drape under the plaque is "Liu Guan Zhang Sanying Fighting Lu Bu".

The inner plaque on the east side reads "Looking down at the mirror and clearing the stream".

"Looking down at the mirror and clearing the stream" comes from the line "Looking down at the mirror and clearing the stream, looking up at Tianjin" in Lu Qiuchong's answering poem in the Western Jin Dynasty. In ancient China, after the Lunar New Year's Eve, there was a ritual of praying for blessings, usually on the third day of the third lunar month. Exorcism is to wash in the river to wash off the sludge accumulated on the body for a whole winter. At first, it was a royal activity, and then literati were involved, and then it was a national activity, which became a spring outing. Drinking alcohol during the event is the so-called drinking and drinking, and the gathering of people to drink has evolved into what Wang Xizhi said. This poem by Lu Qiuchong is a response to the emperor's call to recite poems for the royal spring outing. In the original poem, I just sang what I saw that day, looking down at the mirror and clear stream means looking down at my face with water as a mirror. There must have been a spring rain that day, so I looked up at Tianjin, and looked at it, Tianjin is the water from the sky.

Some people extended the term Qingliu to the virtuous scholar-bureaucrats of the Qing Dynasty. In fact, there is no need for it. Qianlong did not think highly of these scholar-bureaucrats. Compared with those so-called clear streams, Lao Gan prefers the clear water of Kunming Lake. Moreover, Lao Gan likes the literati feelings of Qushui Liushang the most, and builds Qushui Liushang pavilions everywhere. He built a Qushui Liushang pavilion in the Qianlong Garden in the palace, and also built one in Tanzhe Temple, so it is appropriate to inscribe here the poems of the royal spring outing in the Western Jin Dynasty before the Eastern Jin Dynasty.

The painted painting under the plaque is "Zhao Zilong Rides the Savior Alone".

The pillow plaque "Axe Zao Qunyan" comes from "Wen Xin Diao Long" "Emphasis on public figures with multiple talents, invigorating their emblems, making poems and odes, Axe Zao Qunyan". Axe algae, axe cutting algae decoration, modification also. Group speakers, each writing. Who dares to modify and criticize the books of various schools of thought without authorization, who is not an emperor? The original text is to praise Zhou Gongdan, and Qianlong used it here to be complacent and to praise himself for his talent.

Walking all the way, you can see two very important buildings on the promenade. Those are two waterside pavilions, or Linshui Changxuan, one is between Liujia Pavilion and Jilan Pavilion in the east section, and the other is between Qiushui Pavilion and Qingyao Pavilion in the west section. Look at the pair of gull boats in the east section.

There are corridors and long corridors connected to the gull boat, which shows that this is an existing building in Qingyi Garden.

Look at the plaque under the eaves on the south side of the gull boat.

Lao Gan once wrote a poem praising gull boats: Linshui Pavilion is like a boat floating, and it is common to see gulls bathing while leaning on the railing. From the concept of materialization and machine dwelling, we will meet each other and Ning Xi's hermit will flow. Why did he only think of Ou and Fang? Because there is a sentence in the Tang poems that "the craftsman manages the special boat, and forgets to face Ou Ting".

Look at the pillow plaque on the north side of the gull boat.

Han Hai nourishes spring, which is taken from the sentence in "Han Shu" that "he is the ruler of the world, he is as hot as the sun, as powerful as a god, he is like the sea, and he is like spring". This is Ban Gu's dialogue with the guest of honor to praise the Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, who is as majestic as the sun and gods, contains everything like the sea, and nourishes all people like spring. The master Ban Gu mentioned should be Jia Yi who wrote "On the Passing of Qin Dynasty". In Jia Yi's "New Book", there is "the way of an emperor, wrap it like the sea, and nourish it like spring". Laogan's title here "Han Hai Yang Chun" means "under the whole world, is it the land of the king, and the shore of the land, is it the king's ministers".

This pair of gull boats was originally an open house, but I don't remember when it was closed and turned into a house. Now it is also used as a cruise ship terminal, and the style of the past has been lost.

But it doesn't matter, you can go to the west section of the promenade to see the symmetrical open pavilion and water pavilion, called Yuzao Pavilion, which basically remains the same.

Yuzao Pavilion also has a corridor connected to the promenade.

The corridor connects to another building to the north, which will be discussed later.

Look at it from the front.

Yuzao Pavilion faces water on three sides, and below it is a stone platform with white stone embankment. On the platform, there is a circle of white stone Zen rod railings, plain heart Chinese boards, net bottle supports, and lotus pilgrimage pillars. This kind of white stone or white marble balustrade of the Zen stick is the royal style of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It is like this in the palace of the Ming Dynasty. Yuzao Pavilion is built on the white stone platform, with a two-foot-high base, three rooms wide and three rooms deep, and eaves corridors around it. The golden brick floor in the pavilion is covered with a beam-lifting structure of gray tiles and a single eaves rolling shed on the top of the mountain, without ridges. Its official architecture is reflected in the red columns, wall columns, porch columns, and door covers between columns are all red, and it is red closed mountain flowers, decorated with gilded lotus branches, and even the plum blossom hairpin on the wind board is gilded of. The beams are painted in Su style.

Under the south eaves is a plaque "Yuzao Xuan", which was written by Cixi on the original plaque of Qianlong. Laogan wrote a small poem "Yuzaoxuan" by himself: "Bingpu is gradually flowing, and the fish are happy to know when it is too late. The abyss is also in the algae, and the poems can be seen after a few ladders. Zhu Zhu's annotations are called odes, and Mao Jian's are called thorns. Assuming that the cloud contains the nature of things, the reality is also abstained from this." Before the Spring and Autumn Period, there were more than 3,000 ancient poems, and Confucius excavated 300 of them into the "Jing". The allusion "Mao Jian" in Laogan's poems refers to the "Book of Songs" annotated by Mao Heng, who is the nephew of the famous Handan Mao Sui. "Zhu Zhu" refers to Zhu Xi's reading of Mao Jian's "Poetry Collection Biography", which is a representative work of Zhu Xi's poetics research, and it can also be said to be a guide to reading "The Book of Songs". The two allusions cited in Laogan's poems directly indicate that "Yuzaoxuan" is taken from the "Book of Songs".

The word "fish and algae" in "The Book of Songs" comes from three poems in "Xiaoya·Fish and algae in Shishi": "When the fish is in the algae, there is a prize. The king is in the pickaxe, how can he drink wine? The fish is in the algae, and there are scorpions Its tail. The king is in the pickaxe, how can you enjoy drinking? The fish is in the algae, and it depends on the cattail. The king is in the pickaxe, and there is a place to live." This is a happy scene describing the fish swimming in the algae and the king drinking in the pickaxe. Pickaxe is of course Pickaxe (Number) Jing, so this king is the King of Zhou, not the King of Zhou Mozi.

Like the pair of gull boats, there is also a pillow plaque under the north eaves of Yuzao Pavilion.

"A lesson can be collected".鞶 (reading plate) mirror: the bronze mirror hanging on the corset belt, decorated with it, "wear it with Qiongju, and bring it with it". "Zheng (reading sign)" means to sign, to prove. "Bai Jian Ke Zheng" comes from "Wen Xin Diao Long·Ming Zhen", "and Cui Hu's patch, collectively called "Hundred Officials", which refers to the coordination of things, and Da Jian can collect." The ancients decorated the trouser belt with mirrors, and there were also mottos such as warnings to the world written on the trouser belt. The original text of Liu Xie (read Liu Xie) "Wen Xin Diao Long" means to establish a post responsibility system for all officials. These systems should become the motto written on their belts, and serve as their reference like a mirror. Therefore, it can be interpreted as learning from the mirror, as Confucius said, "I examine myself three times in a day". Seeing that the Kunming Lake is as quiet as a mirror, Laogan thought to himself, "Could it be possible to learn from it?" I put these four words here, and I must be thinking about working hard to formulate and improve the post responsibility system for officials at all levels in the Qing Dynasty.

After reading the outside, go inside to have a look.

There is also a plaque hanging on the horizontal frame inside the door, "Fang Feng Chants the Time". The words come from a flattering poem by Lu Yun in the Western Jin Dynasty, "Thinking of the Le Huatang, and the cloud building Chongji. The king has wine, and the words are thin. The scenery is shining, and the fragrance is singing. ". Lu Yun is the grandson of Lu Xun of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period, and Lu Xun was the one who planned Lu Meng to cross the river in white to kill Guan Gong. Lu Yun's grandson is quite talented. He can be an official and write poems. In the poem, Jingyao Huimang means radiance, and when Fang Feng sings, it means exaggerated officials in erotic poems. The wind is not the flowing air, but the wind in "Feng", "Ya" and "Ode", and the beautiful words are also.

There are partition doors between the wall columns. The upper floor of the house is completely built in the Ming Dynasty, with large-scale horizontal beams and longitudinal beams all over the place. When painting on large-scale square beams, the burden of painting is much larger than that in the corridor, and the painting format is also much larger.

Look under the porches.

Standing in the Yuzao Pavilion and looking at the West Mountain, the scenery is excellent.

With the partition door cover between the wall columns and the outline of the upper and lower lintels between the corridor columns as the frame, you can see from a distance: the blue sky above, the clear water below, and the green mountains in the middle. I said last time that this picture effect is called "over white", which is an example of the principle of Chinese art "seeing the situation from a distance, and observing the shape from a close up".

When the sun returned, I sat idle in the Yuzao Pavilion, but I saw: the setting sun was shining, the pavilions and columns were dark, and the voice of the guests was weak. There are thousands of miles of red clouds, the setting sun melts gold, the evening clouds merge, and people are in the corridor. The mountains are vast and the water is vast, and the shadows of trees and waves are long.

Going west along the promenade, you will find a small courtyard. The small courtyard sits west and faces east, with a whitewashed wall in front and a moon gate on the wall.

The other three sides of the small courtyard are semi-enclosed houses, you can call it a "concave" shape, concave to the east. You can also call it seven west rooms plus north and south wings, with four rooms in each wing. Look at the three-sided enclosure from the outside.

There is an open door outside the west room, and the rest of the rooms are sill walls and sill windows. The top is a gray tile single-eave rolling shed hanging from the top of the mountain, and there is a circle of cornices outside. Red pillars and red windows, beams and squares are covered with Soviet-style paintings. There is a piercing gate on the east gable wall of the north and south wings. Look at the piercing gate on the north wing. There is a gate pavilion outside the gate.

The mountain gate on the south wing faces the corridor directly.

There is a plaque hanging outside the door, and Cixi rewritten the book "Changing the Eight Winds", and "Wen Xin Diao Long·Yue Fu" said, "If you teach the son, you must sing the nine virtues, so you can have the seven beginnings of emotion and change the eight winds." The nine virtues are loyalty, faith, respect, rigidity, softness, harmony, firmness, chastity, and obedience; the seven beginnings are Huang Zhong, Lin Zhong, Da Cui, Nan Lu, Gu Xi, Ying Zhong, Rui (Nian Rui) Bin, and the former Three are heaven, earth and man, and the last four are the four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter; the ancients defined the twelve rhythms of music as six rhythms, five tones, eight tones, and seven beginnings. Eight winds are the winds of eight sides. In ancient times, different names were given to winds in different directions. Each series is different, but they are collectively called eight winds. The original work of this section discusses the educational function of music, starting with the seven virtues of the emotion and transforming the eight winds. Changing the eight winds means that the enlightening effect of music can be projected in all directions. Lao Gan mentions "Eight Winds of Transformation" here alone, without preface or afterword, so it is impossible to guess what he intends to teach the Quartet.

This courtyard is called "Shizhang Pavilion". The word Shizhang comes from a Taihu stone in the Moon Gate.

There is an allusion. In the Song Dynasty, there was a calligrapher Mi Fu (Nian Mi Fu). Mi Shi should be Mi, one of the eight surnames of the ancient Chu royal family and the god of fire Zhurong. Most of the Mi people have famous literati, such as Mi Qu (Qu Yuan), Bai Juyi, and this Mi Fu. It is said that Mi Fu is very humorous and likes to be funny. In his later years, he served as an incompetent army and prefected the state. When he took office and went to the state government, he saw a wonderful Taihu stone standing in the yard, and said, "How can such a strange stone not be worshipped?" So the master took the official robe and jade wat, changed his clothes and held the wat to worship the general. From then on, he called this strange stone "Shizhang". If Mi Fu's bizarre behavior spread, people would laugh at him as an idiot. Since then, if there is a strange stone in the world, it will be called "Shi Zhang".

It is said that this Taihu stone in the Summer Palace was collected by a magistrate from the people. It was originally reserved for self-appreciation, but it became famous later. As a last resort, it was dedicated to Qianlong to build Qingyi to protect his official position. This stone has thousands of holes and hundreds of holes, exquisite and transparent, simple and unsophisticated, extraordinary and refined. Of course, Qianlong liked this Taihu stone very much, so he stood it in the courtyard, and wrote a poem "Shizhang Pavilion": "Yue Lizhen is called the father-in-law, and the dragon scales are stained with berry moss and rain. Why is it so obsessive to fold the Yuanzhang Qingqing? Xi Shi was white and simple in those days." The poem mentions the legend of Mi Fu worshiping stones, Yuanzhang: Mi Fu, character Yuanzhang; Lao Gan is making fun of Mi Fu, saying that he knows you love stones, but you can just worship, why bother holding a wat?

Since this small courtyard is called Shizhang Pavilion, it should have been a half-circle open pavilion in the first place, and it may not have this whitewashed wall. If it is a half circle of houses, it should be called "Zhai", "Xuan" and "Tang" more appropriately. I guess it was indeed an open semi-circle of pavilions and corridors during the Qingyi Garden period, and it was closed into an enclosure by Guangxu during the Summer Palace period. There are still some places like this in the Summer Palace. Qingyi Changxuan has been converted into the Summer Palace, and we will see it later.

The above are all landscapes along the promenade, and the promenade is also connected to other buildings, which will be discussed in the next episode.

(to be continued)