[Preface] As a cultural and museum enthusiast who lives in the imperial capital, it is natural to visit the museums around him from time to time. Of course, the Capital Museum is the focus of attention. Usually, I often learn about recent exhibitions through the WeChat notary account of Shoubo. If there are exhibitions related to history and culture, I will definitely take time to visit them. At the beginning of March, there were two temporary exhibitions in the first Expo, both of which used a large number of cultural relics to show the development of civilization and culture. One is "Shanzong? Ji’an”, after looking at the promotional materials of these two exhibitions, they were really good, so I thought about finding time to visit them, and finally chose a weekend to visit carefully for a whole day, and recorded the main exhibits in detail with photos. From my personal point of view, I agree with these two exhibitions, so I will use travel notes and a large number of photos to show them in detail. I will explain the key cultural relics in detail based on the explanatory materials of the Capital Museum. On the one hand, it can satisfy those donkey friends who don’t have time to visit, and it will definitely give them an immersive feeling. On the other hand, it hopes to arouse the interest of donkey friends and encourage them to visit. Well, let's take a look at these two exhibitions together.

(Beijing in March, the sky is blue and the water is blue, and the Sanli River is rippling)

(Walking into the Capital Museum, I saw a large exhibition poster from a distance)

(Every Spring Festival, the Capital Museum will hang up Spring Festival couplets. This year's Spring Festival couplets are "Family and prosperity, five years of spring breeze, integrity, innovation and pursuit of the crown, the picturesque country celebrates the 70th birthday, learns from history, and accumulates extensive knowledge")

[Text] These two exhibitions have a lot of content and take a long time, so I considered using a whole day when planning. I made preparations before going out, specially chose a large thermos cup to make tea, and brought chocolates and biscuits for lunch. Take the bus to the Capital Museum at 9:00, and enter the museum after opening the door.

(At this time, the Capital Museum has five temporary exhibitions)

(I mainly watch the first two - Qinghai, Ji'an)

(The first thing to visit is "Shanzong? Water Source? Road Zhichong - Qinghai in the Belt and Road")

"Qinghai's long clouds cover the eastern land, and the shape of Hehuang surpasses the western border!" During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Qiang people, the masters of Qinghai in the Bronze Age, were involved in the competition between the Central Plains Dynasty and the Xiongnu, and the power of the Central Plains Dynasty entered Hehuang. Since the Wei and Jin dynasties, the Central Plains have been swaying, and the race for the deer has extended to Qinghai. The Tuyuhun tribe of the Xianbei tribe from Liaodong finally established a country in the hometown of the Qiang. Tuyuhun, which spans thousands of miles and has been established for more than 300 years, was destroyed by the successive efforts of Sui, Tang and Tubo, and Qinghai became the frontier of the confrontation between Tang and Tubo. After the "Anshi Rebellion", Tubo once controlled Qinghai for more than a hundred years. At the beginning of the eleventh century, Yu Xu of Tubo established the Qingtang regime, which died in the Northern Song Dynasty. Since then, the Jin and Xixia regimes and the unified dynasties in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have increasingly strengthened their management and rule in Qinghai.

The thousands of years of political and military conflicts and confrontations mentioned above, on the one hand, reflect that Qinghai is holding on to the key points due to the advantages of mountains and rivers. On the other hand, the migration, integration and convergence of the multi-ethnic groups in Qinghai was continuous, and the main traffic roads connecting the surrounding areas and leading to the outside world were also opened up successively, becoming an important part of the Silk Road, the ancient Tang-Tibet road and the ancient tea-horse road.

Therefore, following the mountains, rivers, and roads, one can trace back to the beautiful Qinghai. The origin is like this...

(This exhibition board uses small lights of different colors to demonstrate to us the main roads leading to the Western Regions and Tubo through Qinghai thousands of years ago. Through these roads, the exchange of multi-ethnic cultures has been promoted)

The whole exhibition is divided into six parts, the first part is "A long history"

(This is a map of Qinghai Province, marking the various Stone Age sites that have been discovered)

The first unit of the first part is "Stone Age", which introduces the development of human civilization on the land of Qinghai with a large number of cultural relics in the order of Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic.

(From this picture, we learned about the ruins of Xiaochaidan Lake and Layihai)

(Take a picture of the details to see more clearly)

(This is a stone tool found at the Xiaochaidan site, which belongs to the Paleolithic age)

(This is a stone tool unearthed from the Layihai site, which belongs to the Mesolithic age)

This showcase exhibits the pottery of the "Majiayao Culture" from 4,000 to 6,000 years ago. It is subdivided into three major types. We can learn about the details of these pottery through the following photos. First look at the Majiayao pottery of the Majiayao culture from 4800 to 5300 years ago.

(Neolithic Age, Majiayao type, 34.1 cm high, 24.5 cm in diameter, 15.2 cm in bottom diameter, 31.2 cm in abdominal diameter, unearthed from the Zongri site in Tongde County, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and collected by Qinghai Provincial Museum. Clay red pottery, luxury Mouth, drum shoulders, straight abdomen retracted downwards, ears, flat bottom. Black color. Four sets of arc patterns are painted inside the mouth, string patterns, deformed fish patterns, fishhook patterns, etc. are painted on the surface of the vessel from top to bottom. The shape of the utensils is regular Generous, simple and lively decoration, abstract and vivid fish patterns, it is a fine piece of painted pottery in the same period)

(There are several individual showcases in the center of the exhibition hall, displaying some boutique culture)

(This is a fine cultural relic of the Majiayao culture Majiayao type exhibited in a separate central showcase - painted pottery basin with dancing patterns. Neolithic age, Majiayao type, 12.5 cm high, 24.2 cm in diameter, 24 cm in belly diameter cm, base diameter 9.9 cm, unearthed from Zongri Site, Tongde County, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and collected by Qinghai Provincial Museum.)

(Look carefully at this painted pottery basin with dancing patterns. It has a closed mouth, rolled edges, a small flat bottom, and black color patterns. There are groups of opposite triangle patterns and groups of oblique lines on the edge of the mouth. Three parallel string patterns are painted on the outer wall. The inner wall along the mouth is painted with two groups of human figures dancing hand in hand, a group of 11 people and a group of 13 people, a total of 24 people. Lines, oblique lines, and dots are separated, and there are four parallel strings on the feet of the characters. The whole picture is full and substantial, and the charm of ancient culture is reflected in the dynamics.)

(This is a fine cultural relic of the Majiayao culture Majiayao type exhibited in another separate center showcase - the painted pottery basin with the pattern of double lifting objects.

Neolithic age, Majiayao type, 11.3 cm high, 24.5 cm in diameter, 24.5 cm in abdominal circumference, and 9.8 cm in bottom diameter, unearthed from Zongri Site, Tongde County, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, collected by Qinghai Provincial Museum)

(Look carefully at the basin, clay terracotta, bulging lips, slightly bulging belly, black color inside and outside, mainly parallel stripes on the outside. The theme of the inner color is four groups of two people standing facing each other, with their backs bent and arms stretched forward A round weight, the four groups of decorations are filled with horizontal and vertical stripes, the characters and horizontal lines are separated by vertical lines, the bottom is parallel, the mouth is decorated with triangular and diagonal stripes, and the outside of the basin is painted with parallel stripes and single crochet patterns)

Look at the pottery of the Banshan type of Majiayao culture from 4300 to 4600 years ago

(Yan people 5,000 years ago could skillfully fire glazed pottery in black, red and green)

(Woodworking tools and decorative necklaces in the new era, it seems that the love of beauty has been around for a long time)

In the third part of this showcase, look at the pottery of the Majiayao Culture Machang type from 4000 to 4300 years ago. In this period, not only the graphics are more complex, the glaze color is more abundant, the tire wall is also thinner, and the shape of the vessel is also more. complex changes.

(Cross pattern double tank, Neolithic age, Machang type, height 7.7 cm, diameter (large) 10.2 cm, (small) 9.6 cm, overall length 22.6 cm, abdominal diameter (large) 11.2 cm, (small) 10.2 cm , with a bottom diameter of 4.5 cm, unearthed from the Dayuan Site in Minhe County, Haidong, and collected by the Qinghai Provincial Museum. A flat handle is placed along the mouth of the two adjacent tanks, and the tank belly is connected by a cylinder. The inner belly is decorated with black and red two-color cross patterns and Dot pattern, red ribbon pattern and black color continuous arc pattern on the outside. Unique shape and simple decoration, it is a treasure in the Machang type)

(Mat prints appear on the bottom of the clay pot)

(This is a high-quality cultural relic of the Majiayao culture Machang type exhibited in a separate center showcase - painted pottery pot with human head. Neolithic age, Machang type, overall height 23.1 cm, diameter 4.7 cm, belly diameter 19 cm, bottom 8.3 cm in diameter, unearthed from Liuwan Site, Ledu District, Haidong City, collected by Liuwan Painted Pottery Museum, Qinghai, China)

(Human head painted pottery pot, made of muddy red pottery. The mouth of the pot is raised in a semicircle, and it is shaped like a human face. The face is slightly square. The eyes, ears, and mouth are hollowed out. The hair, eyelashes, and beards are all painted in black. Closed, upturned nose, half-open mouth, bulging abdomen, symmetrical ring ears, small flat bottom. Painted black color spiral pattern)

(Another exquisite cultural relic of the Majiayao culture Machang type is also exhibited in the same single center showcase-a duck-shaped painted pottery pot)

(Duck-shaped painted pottery pot, Neolithic Age, Machang type, 18 cm high, 5.2 cm in diameter, 17.1 cm in overall length, unearthed from Jiarenzhuang Site, Minhe County, Haidong, collected by Qinghai Provincial Museum)

(Clay red pottery, the body is like a duck, the pot-shaped mouth means a duck head with a raised head, and the symmetrical ears are duck-shaped wings. The mouth of the pot is painted with string patterns, and the body of the pot is painted with black and red frogs pattern. The shape of the duck-shaped pot is novel and unique, and the decoration on the body is full of dynamics)

The pottery of the Majiayao culture Machang type from 4000 to 4300 years ago is still on display in this showcase, as well as some ornaments and tools from this period. Let's take a look at the specific cultural relics, first look at each piece of pottery.

In this period, relatively exquisite ornaments have appeared, including necklaces made of turquoise and shells, bone fragments with tooth marks, which should be the oldest "saw", and pottery spinning wheels.

The exhibits in this showcase are cultural relics unearthed from the Zongri site. These pottery belong to "sand-filled pottery" and are 4,000 years old.

(It is more difficult to make sandy pottery, and the whole pottery is relatively rough)

(A large shelf is set up in the middle of the exhibition hall, and many clay pots are placed)

The second unit of the first part is "Bronze Age", which can be divided into Qijia culture, Kayo culture, Xindian culture and Nomuhong culture.

The first showcase of the Bronze Age exhibits unearthed cultural relics from the Qijia culture period. The period of Qijia culture was 3800-4200 years ago. During this period, the pottery making technology has greatly developed. The pottery is fine in texture, smooth in polishing, and complex in shape. Red is often used to draw triangular and broken line patterns. Look at specific artifacts.

(A lot of cultural relics belonging to the Qijia culture period were unearthed from the Lajia site)

(The displays in this showcase are all pottery unearthed from the Lajia site, and there is also a piece of jade)

This showcase exhibits cultural relics from the "Cayo Culture" period 2,600--3,600 years ago. The pottery is characterized by the appearance of patterns of deer and bighorn sheep. During this period, bronzes began to appear.

(Look at the faience pot decorated with bighorn sheep, Cayo culture type, 13.2 cm high, 14.1 cm in diameter, 17.8 cm in belly diameter, 6.5 cm in bottom diameter, unearthed from Ahatra, Xunhua County, Haidong City, and collected by Qinghai Provincial Museum. Clay terracotta, with a wide mouth, a neck, two ears, a hanging belly, a small bottom, and a concave ring foot. There is a layer of reddish-brown pottery covering above the lower abdomen of the pottery, and black paint on the pottery. The edge of the mouth There is a circle of broken lines on the inner side, a circle of parallel double lines on the neck, and continuous "human" pattern inside. Two groups of standing bighorn sheep patterns are painted on the upper abdomen, and a group of three is lifelike in shape and vivid in image. The patterns of bighorn sheep are separated by the pattern of "Tian". There is a circle of parallel double-line patterns drawn on the lower abdomen of the vessel table, and the inner fold lines are filled. The ears of this painted pottery pot extend from the mouth to the neck, and the outside of the ears are painted There are Tianzi deformation patterns)

(deer bone tube)

(Bronze artifacts began to appear)

On the right side of this showcase is the Xindian culture, and on the left is the Nomuhong culture.

First look at the Xindian culture, Tang Wang type of cultural relics

(Painted pottery boots, Xindian culture type, 11.4 cm high, 6.8 cm in diameter, 14.3 cm in bottom length, 5 cm thick on the boot surface, unearthed from Liuwan Site, Ledu District, Haidong City, Qinghai Provincial Museum collection. Sandy red pottery, mouth Slightly extravagant, the boots are hollow inside, the boots are round, the joint between the upper and the sole is curved inward, and the front and rear of the sole are behind. The whole body is covered with purple red pottery, and the geometric patterns are painted in black and decorated with double lines Stripes. The shaft of the boot is painted with symmetrical double-line fretwork, and the upper is decorated with double-line stripes and triangular patterns. This painted pottery boot is discovered for the first time in my country)

Look at the cultural relics of Nomuhong culture

(woolen products began to appear)

"If you have enough food and clothing, you know etiquette." With the development of production, people began to pursue etiquette. This showcase exhibits the earliest ritual jade and bronze wares, which first appeared in the Qijia culture period. Let's take a closer look at these artifacts.

(Bronze dove head, dog barking ox stick head, Kayo culture type, 11.3 cm high, 10 cm wide, 2.5 cm in diameter, unearthed from Dahuazhongzhuang, Huangyuan County, Xining City, collected by Huangyuan County Museum. Round 銎, dove head and round eyes The long beak is slightly open, the neck is used as a tube, and there is a female cow on the head of the dove bird. The horns of the cow are O-shaped, the back is raised, and the tail is raised. There is a calf sucking milk under the abdomen, and a dog stands on the tip of the dove beak, and the mother Cows look at each other and bark like dogs)

(Gold ornaments from 3,000 years ago)

(Four-hole jade knife and seven-hole copper axe)

The second part is "Han Wind and Qiang Road". During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Xiongnu rose in the northern grasslands. The people became the auxiliary force for the Xiongnu to attack the Han Dynasty. By the time of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the Western Han Dynasty began to "destroy the Huns in the north and chase the Qiangs in the west". During the reign of Emperor Zhaodi of the Han Dynasty, Jincheng County was established in the Western Han Dynasty, and since then the eastern part of Qinghai has been officially included in the system of counties and counties managed by the central government. During the Eastern Han Dynasty, Xiping County (now Xining City) was established from Jincheng County, which further consolidated the western frontier of the Han Dynasty. It was at this historical stage that Qinghai Qiang Middle Road became the main traffic route connecting east and west, and together with the road to the north, it formed the Desert Silk Road. The second part is divided into three units. The first unit is "the beginning of exchanges", which uses cultural relics to introduce the exchanges between grassland nomadic civilization and Central Plains farming civilization, Eurasian civilization, and South Asian civilization.

The second part of the second unit "The first opening of Hehuang"

(The picture shows the route of Zhang Qian’s two missions to the Western Regions, and exhibits the cultural relics found in Qinghai that the Han Dynasty set up government offices in the Western Regions)

The third unit of the second part is "West Sea Stability", which introduces the pacification of the Western Regions by the Han Dynasty.

(Gold medal decoration of wolf biting cattle, Han Dynasty, 15 cm long, 9.5 cm wide, unearthed in Qilian County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and collected by Qinghai Provincial Museum. The picture shows natural forms such as mountains, forests, wolves, and cattle: a wolf in the forest is Biting the hind legs of a cow, while the cow struggles in pain, the lines of the picture are flowing, and the movement is extremely strong, which makes the whole scene full of the tense atmosphere of the jungle. The back of the gold medal is slightly flat, and there are two rectangular horizontal buckles, which should be It is used for hanging. The gold medal decoration is a typical decoration with animals as the theme in northern my country. It is a symbolic ornament of the Xiongnu culture that shows the status and level, a national treasure cultural relic, and a very exquisite gold decoration)

(Bronze feather man with branch lamp, although it has been damaged, its exquisite shape can also be seen from the fragment)

(These remnants of the chandelier are described in detail with pictures next to it)

(Silver pot, Eastern Han Dynasty, 16.2 cm high, 7 cm in diameter, unearthed from the Han and Jin tombs in Shangsunjiazhai, Datong County, Xining City, and collected by the National Museum. The mouth, abdomen, and bottom are decorated with three sets of golden patterns, and the abdomen is decorated with six flowers of different shapes. Flowers. This is a Hellenistic silver pot with Parthian decorative style. The craftsmanship and decorative style of the utensils spread eastward along the trade routes between the East and the West. The shape of the utensils should be suitable for the habits of a certain nation or user However, with corresponding reforms, the owner of the utensils may be Lu Shuihu, Biebu of the Huns)

(This silver jug ​​has the style of Greek civilization, please note that the collector is the National Museum, this is a national treasure cultural relic)

The third part is "Tuyuhun Country", Tuyuhun (the second character reads "Yu"), originally a personal name, is the eldest son of Murong Shegui, Chanyu Murong Shegui of the Xianbei Murong family in Liaodong. Due to estrangement with his brothers, Tuyuhun then led his troops to move westward to eastern Qinghai and other places, invaded and forced Di and Qiang, and became a strong tribe. After Ye Yan, the grandson of Tuyuhun, succeeded to the throne, he took his grandfather Tuyuhun as his family name and country name. At this time in Chinese history, the regimes were divided and divided. The regimes that ruled or competed in Qinghai successively included Qianliang, Qianqin, Houliang, Nanliang, Xiqin, and Beiliang. After Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty personally conquered Tuyuhun, the Tuyuhun regime gradually declined. At the beginning of Tang Dynasty, Tuyuhun repeatedly harassed the northwestern frontier of Tang Dynasty, and Tang Taizong sent the famous general Li Jing and other subjects to Tuyuhun. After the rise of the Tubo regime, it gradually expanded to the Gansu and Qinghai regions. In 663 AD, Tubo destroyed Tuyuhun. Nuohebo, the last king of Tuyuhun, fled to Liangzhou with his remnants. The "Tuyuhun Road" ("Henan Road") prospered due to the blockage of the Hexi Road, and became the only way to connect Central Asia, West Asia and the Central Plains. From the 4th century to the second half of the 7th century, the Tuyuhun people became the protagonists of Qinghai history.

The third part is also divided into four units, the first unit "Qiang Zhongdao"

(This bronze horse has a square face, a protruding forehead, a straight nose, a wide mouth, and small vertical ears, which conforms to the characteristics of Dawan's sweaty and bloody horses in history books)

(The main traffic artery in the Western Regions two thousand years ago)

The second unit of the third part "Tuyuhun Kingdom" "Xianbei Tiller"

The third unit of the third part "Tuyuhun Kingdom" "River Valley Separation"

(National treasure-level cultural relics—gold-button clam shell wine glass, period of the Sixteen Kingdoms, length 13.7 cm, width 10.4 cm, height 3.5 cm, unearthed from a tomb of the Sixteen Kingdoms period at Nantan Brick and Tile Factory, Xining City, Qinghai Provincial Museum)

(The wine glass is also the ear cup, oval utensil, shallow belly, flat bottom, with half-moon-shaped ears on both sides, like the wings of a bird, so it is called "Yu Glass". : "Xu Hui with the first head, and the Yu cup". It was popular in the Warring States period to the Wei and Jin Dynasties. It was a daily utensil, mostly made of wood, and there were also copper ear cups. Ear cups with clam shells inlaid with gold mouths are extremely rare)

The fourth unit of the third part "Tuyuhun Country" "Tuyuhun Road"

(The "Tuyuhun Road" built by the Tuyuhun people to promote business exchanges)

The fourth part of the exhibition "Shanzong? Water Source? Road Rush - Qinghai in the Belt and Road Initiative" is "Tubo's Eastward Advancement" [to be continued]