The Summer Palace is well known to the world as the most complete ancient Chinese royal palace and imperial garden preserved to this day. Its predecessor is Qingyi Garden, which is a large-scale landscape garden built on the basis of Hangzhou West Lake and designed with the design techniques of Jiangnan gardens in several districts. In the fifteenth year of Qianlong, Emperor Qianlong used 4.48 million taels of silver to rebuild the Qingyi Garden in the western suburbs of Beijing without honoring his mother, the Empress Xiaosheng. In the tenth year of Xianfeng (1860), it was burned down by the British and French allied forces. It was rebuilt in the 14th year of Guangxu (1888) and renamed the Summer Palace. The funds used for the reconstruction of the Summer Palace back then were instructed by Cixi to embezzle the funds of the Navy Yamen and use the form of "marine defense donation" to raise funds, which is to raise funds from the society in the name of coast defense, and get 2.6 million yuan in return for official titles. Two silver came.

The East Palace Gate is the main entrance of the Summer Palace, so it is planned to enter through the East Palace Gate and finally exit through the North Palace Gate. After getting off at Xiyuan Station of Metro Line 4, take the Southwest Exit of C2 and walk for about 1 kilometer.

When I went to buy tickets in front of the east gate, I found that there were really many tourists. Fortunately, the Summer Palace is one of the few parks in Beijing that can pay online. The embarrassment of queuing up with customers.

Donggongmen, Qingyi Garden is called Dagongmen. It was first built in the fifteenth year of Qianlong, and was renamed Donggongmen after it was rebuilt in the twelfth year of Guangxu. The three characters "Summer Palace" are written by Emperor Guangxu. It is said that Guangxu's calligraphy was extremely poor back then, and it was most appropriate for the minister of the Ministry of Industry to ask Emperor Guangxu to write, and it would be more beneficial for him to get promoted and make a fortune in the future, so he went to see the emperor. Emperor Guangxu was very happy to hear this, without saying a word, he picked up the imperial pen and began to write on a piece of white paper spread on the dragon table. The minister of the Ministry of Industry saw that the word "Summer Palace" was written crookedly, which was extremely ugly. I had no choice but to make a plaque according to his handwriting and hang it up. On the second day, when Cixi came to the Summer Palace, she was furious when she saw the newly hung plaque, and asked about the reason. When Guangxu heard about this, he was terrified and practiced calligraphy behind closed doors, but he never made any progress. After seeing the minister of the Ministry of Industry, he proposed to visit Wang Yongfu, an old carpenter. After Wang Yongfu instructed and practiced hard, he finally practiced well. Calligraphy and write this plaque. However, the plaque we see now is a replica after it was replaced on December 20, 2011.

The Kowloon gold-plated plaque "Summer Palace" written in Emperor Guangxu's handwriting is vigorous and powerful.

After entering the East Palace Gate, you can go to Renshou Gate.

Screen walls on both sides of Renshou Gate

The birthday stone behind Renshou Gate. When the Summer Palace was rebuilt in the twelfth year of Guangxu, it was moved here from the Mergen Garden. It is named for its green and moist color, and its shape is like a birthday star.

There are four Taihu stones in spring, summer, autumn and winter in the four corners of the courtyard.

The bronze unicorn in front of the Hall of Renshou was originally in front of the gate of Changchun Garden in Yuanmingyuan, and it was moved here from Yuanmingyuan in 1937. It is said that the Qilin was originally a pair, and only one was left after the destruction of the Old Summer Palace, and the two front legs were broken during transportation. Marks, and the color is obviously different due to the different copper metal content used.

The Hall of Renshou was originally named "Dian of Qinzheng", which was built in 1750, which means not forgetting to manage government affairs diligently. It was burned down by the British and French allied forces in the 10th year of Xianfeng, and rebuilt in the 12th year of Guangxu. temple. It is the place where the Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu met ministers and received foreign envoys when they lived in the Summer Palace. . In 1898, Emperor Guangxu summoned reformist leader Kang Youwei in this hall, appointed him as Prime Minister of the National Affairs Yamen, Zhang Jingshang, and allowed him to specialize in commemorating affairs, thus opening the prelude to the reformation. It is said that because Cixi had done too many bad things, she was always afraid of ghosts knocking on the door and dared not go to the Hall of Renshou, so she called a great dancing god to do it, and hung a plaque of "Dayuan Baojing" to ward off evil spirits.

The bronze dragons and phoenixes lined up in front of the Renshou Hall are all empty stomachs, and they are used to light sandalwood when the emperor holds court meetings. When the sandalwood is ignited in the belly, the cigarette curls out from the mouth of the dragon and phoenix. In ancient my country, the dragon symbolizes the emperor, and the phoenix symbolizes the queen. The customary setting is that the dragon is in the middle and the phoenix is ​​on the side. But after Cixi took power, she reversed the position of the dragon and the phoenix, "the phoenix is ​​on top, and the dragon is on the bottom" to show her authority.

In the middle of Fengju, Cixi's "reform" measures can be seen in many places in the Summer Palace

not close

Going north from the Hall of Renshou, passing through a winding path, you will find the Garden of Virtuous Harmony.

The playing building is a place where actors prepare to enter, store and change clothes and props. The interior is spacious, and now it has been turned into a cultural relics exhibition hall.

Dehe Garden was originally the former site of Yichun Hall during the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty. It was rebuilt during the Guangxu period, and its main buildings are the Grand Theater Building, Yile Hall and Qingshan Hall. In 1891, Empress Dowager Cixi spent 710,000 taels of silver to build a place for herself to listen to operas. It is the same as Changyin Pavilion in the Forbidden City and Chengde Mountain Resort. Qingyin Pavilion is also known as the three major theaters of the Qing Palace. The Grand Theater Building was first built in 1891 and completed in 1895. The stage is 17 meters wide and 21 meters high. It has three floors, and the backstage makeup building has two floors. There are seven "patios" on the roof and "wells" in the floor. There are wells and five square pools at the bottom of the stage. When performing a ghost show, it can descend from the "sky" or come out from the "earth" according to the needs of the plot, and can also lead water to the stage. There is a winch frame on the second floor of the stage, which is used for organ setting. There is a water well under the stage, and when the performance is needed, water springs can be sprayed from the stage.

The largest existing ancient royal theater in my country is magnificent and absolutely professional.

The plaque on the upper floor of the theater building reads "Qing Yan Chang Chen", which means performing on auspicious days for birthday celebrations. The middle level plaque is "Taiping Yutai". It means that in the time of peace and prosperity, praise merits and virtues with music. The plaque on the lower level is: "Huanlu Rongshi", which means joyful performances and glorious performances.

There are many foreign tourists

Bottom caisson

I have to say that Cixi is indeed a huge theater fan. According to the records of the Qing Palace, during the 13 years from the completion of the Grand Theater in the 21st year of Guangxu to the death of Cixi in the 34th year of Guangxu, in the first 11 years alone, she went to the theater here for 262 days, and at most 40 days a year. Every time she comes to the park, she will come to the theater on the second day. Until the 35 days before her death, she was still watching plays here. There is no general auditorium in this theater building. Cixi is accompanied by concubines, princesses, Fujin, etc. to watch the opera in the Yile Hall opposite the stage. Guangxu can only sit on the corridor to accompany the audience. The place where ministers accompany the king to watch a play.

Glass candlesticks in the Hall of Yile. During the Qing Dynasty, glass was still a rare item in China.

In the hall, there is a floor kang for heating in winter. The charcoal used for heating in the palace in the Qing Dynasty was specially refined from high-quality wood, which is durable, vigorous and smokeless.

The Yulan Hall, located behind the Yile Hall, was built in the 15th year of Qianlong. It was a study of Qianlong. After being burned down by the British and French allied forces, it was rebuilt in the 12th year of Guangxu. It was the bedroom of Emperor Guangxu in the Summer Palace. In the twenty-fourth year of Guangxu (1898), Emperor Guangxu summoned Yuan Shikai in Yulan Hall, hoping that he could work for the reform. However, Yuan Shikai violated Yin and Yang, which led to the failure of the Reform Movement of 1898. Cixi issued an "edict", saying that Guangxu was ill, and asked her to "train politics" again. From then on, Guangxu was imprisoned, first in Yingtai. Cixi ordered people to build many walls to seal the courtyard, and moved Emperor Guangxu here. It is said that Emperor Guangxu could only move about in the main hall and a small courtyard at that time, and only left an eunuch with his tongue cut out to serve him. The depressed Emperor Guangxu could only play with a few drums in the courtyard to relieve his depression. From then on, Emperor Guangxu completely lost all contact with the outside world until his death.

There is a large stone on the left and right in front of the gate of Yulan hall, which is called "mother and child stone". It is said that after the failure of the reform movement of 1898, the Empress Dowager Cixi ordered people to move the two "mother and child stones" that were originally in Xiangshan and put them here. He signaled to Emperor Guangxu that Nian Shi still had a mother-child relationship, but Emperor Guangxu was ungrateful and inferior to Nian Shi.

Now most of the walls of the enclosed courtyard have been demolished, leaving only the dark walls in the east and west hall rooms on both sides.

Interior view of the main hall

In the Xiafen room of the east side hall, there are walls built in that year in the room.

Ou Xiangxie in the west side hall (how come it has the same name as Xichun's residence in "A Dream of Red Mansions"!), behind the doors and windows in the room, there are also walls built in the past.

In the courtyard, you can see the tall Foxiang Pavilion on Wanshou Mountain not far away. Emperor Guangxu, who was imprisoned here at that time, didn't know what kind of mood he felt when he looked at it every day.

The Yulan Hall faces the water in the west, and you can reach the east bank of Kunming Lake from the west side of the Xibei Hall.

Yiyun Hall, located behind Yulan Hall, is slightly smaller than Yulan Hall. It was first built in the Qianlong period and rebuilt in the Guangxu period. It is connected with the Yulan Hall complex, and can be regarded as the backyard of Yulan Hall according to the layout. Yiyun Pavilion was the library of Emperor Qianlong when it was in Qingyi Garden, and it was the bedroom of Empress Guangxu Longyu in the Summer Palace.

If it is said that Empress Dowager Cixi delayed the fall of the Qing Dynasty, then Empress Longyu pushed forward the progress of history. Empress Longyu, Yehenala Jingfen, Cixi's niece, although she is not good-looking, she is gentle, intelligent, studious, and well-read. In her later years, she even read European and American history books. As conservative and dull as the legend says. In the second year of Xuantong, as the calls for the abdication of the Qing emperor became louder and louder all over the country, she was able to conform to the trend of the times, withstood the huge pressure of opposition from the diehard princes, and quickly abdicated by edict. "As long as the world is safe", a simple sentence sublimated the image of this "cowardly" queen. After all, a peaceful dynastic change saved society from a violent upheaval. Died in Changchun Palace on February 22, 1913 at the age of 46. Yuan Shikai, then President of the Republic of China, ordered that the national flags be flown at half-mast for three days, and a grand funeral was held for the period. According to the major newspapers of the year, after the death of Empress Dowager Longyu, the public opinion circle was quite sorry.

Facing Kunming Lake and leaning against Longevity Mountain, the Wanshou Hall was built in the fifteenth year of Qianlong. It was originally a two-story building. It was originally built by Qianlong to celebrate his mother's 60th birthday. It was rebuilt in twelve years and became Cixi's bedroom in the Summer Palace.

There is a huge stone in the shape of Ganoderma lucidum in the courtyard of Le Shoutang. This is the famous Qingzhixiu, also known as the prodigal stone, and it is the largest garden stone in China. During the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, Mi Wanzhong, a bureaucrat, accidentally found this green and smooth boulder in Fangshan, which looked like a ganoderma lucidum, and wanted to transport it to his back garden. However, the stone was so heavy that it couldn’t be moved, so we used the method used by Qin Shihuang to build waterways when he built the Great Wall: first build a road, and drill wells every three miles beside the road, and in winter, pour water on the road, freezing into an ice road. pull stone. The stone was transported to the outskirts of Fangshan City. Due to the huge cost, Mi Wanzhong exhausted his financial resources and finally abandoned the stone on the way. Later generations called this stone "the prodigal stone".

When Emperor Qianlong came back from offering sacrifices to his ancestors in the Xiling Mausoleum, he saw this stone when passing by Liangxiang, and asked Liu Yong. Liu Yong guessed what Qianlong was thinking, and said, "This is a spiritual stone. I thought it was an overkill to go to Mi's house, so I squatted in Liangxiang. The township will not go away." Qianlong was very happy after hearing this, and ordered civil and military officials to burn incense immediately, pay homage to the spirit stone, and transport it back to Qingyi Garden within a time limit.

At that time, the courtyard wall of Le Shoutang had been repaired, but the prodigal stone was too large, and the wall had to be demolished before it could be transported into the courtyard. When the empress dowager heard that the prodigal stone was brought in, it was an ominous thing, and it would be even more unlucky to "break the door" into it, so she came forward to dissuade it. Qianlong didn't dare to disobey, but he was unwilling to throw the stone outside the courtyard. Later, a courtier gave him an idea, saying that this stone is shaped like Ganoderma lucidum, which symbolizes longevity and prosperity, and the emperor's foundation will last forever. It must be placed in front of the Leshou Hall. Qianlong told the empress dowager about these remarks, and the empress dowager agreed to move the stone. Qianlong then named it "Qingzhixiu" and inscribed the four characters "Shenying" and "Yuxiu". He also ordered the ministers to write inscriptions and poems, all of which were engraved on the big bluestone.

Qingzhixiu is 8 meters long, 2 meters wide, 4 meters high and weighs more than 20 tons. It has been divided for many years, and now the word "Qing" has fallen off, and the word "Zhixiu" is still clearly identifiable, and Qianlong's Qingzhixiu poems still remain on the stone.


After nearly three hundred years of wind, frost, snow and rain, the stone carvings have long been mottled.

Standing outside Shuimu Ziqin Wharf is the "Dragon Light Pole", also known as "Exploring the Sea Light Pole". It was erected in the eighteenth year of Guangxu (1892). There are pulleys under the "Pearl" to hang the gas lamp. The two light poles are made of wood, and the poles are painted with golden cloud patterns on the columns.

The "Dragon Light Pole" hanging lights are mainly for the lighting of the pier and the courtyard of Le Shoutang. Every time Cixi came to the Summer Palace by water, she boarded the boat at the Yihong Hall, disembarked at the east pier of Guangyuanzha, went to Wanshou Temple to burn incense and have a rest, and then boarded at the west pier of Guangyuanzha to disembark at the Dragon King Temple of the Summer Palace to burn incense. Go ashore at the "Self-Pro" wharf to Le Shoutang. The "Dragon Lamp Pole" was demolished in 1951 due to the poor wood of the light pole, and it was not erected again until 1989. However, the light pole was only painted with green paint and lost its golden cloud pattern. However, the copper gilt on the light pole is fortunate The beam is still something from the Guangxu year.

Gilt beams still gleaming

Mottled lampposts.

Old photos from that time. The auspicious clouds on the lamp post are also resplendent and resplendent.

Since the Summer Palace was rebuilt in the late Qing Dynasty at the end of the nineteenth century, many doors and windows made of glass can be seen in the Summer Palace.

Mizuki personally kissed the assorted glass windows on the corridors on both sides.

Le Shoutang is connected to the corridor in the west. The corridor is 728 meters long and is used by Empress Dowager Cixi. It starts from the Yaoyue Gate in the east, ends at Shizhang Pavilion in the west, passes through the Paiyun Gate in the middle, and connects four pavilions—Liujia Pavilion, Jilan Pavilion, Qiushui Pavilion, Qingyao Pavilion symbolizes the four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter.

The styles of the four pavilions are exactly the same, but the plaques are different.

Liujia Pavilion implying spring, the plaque was written by Emperor Qianlong, which means to keep the beauty and beauty; "The famous sentence in "The sunset and the solitary bird fly together, the autumn water is the same color as the sky", which means that the lake in autumn here is clear and clear; the name of Qingyao Pavilion, which represents winter, was given by Emperor Qianlong. "Qingyao" means that the vision is clear , as far as the eye can see.

Shizhang Pavilion was built in the eighteenth year of Qianlong, destroyed in the tenth year of Xianfeng, and rebuilt in the fifteenth year of Guangxu. It is a courtyard composed of 15 buildings. There is a stone peak in the courtyard named "Zhangren Stone", which is taken from the allusion of Song calligrapher Mi Fu worshiping stone.

Shizhang Pavilion. It has been reduced to a small shopping mall, and it doesn't look like a pavilion in any way. It is said to be Qianlong's "masterpiece".

There are more than 14,000 colorful paintings on each beam in the corridor and corridor, with bright colors and magnificent magnificence. The contents of the color paintings are landscapes, pictures of flowers and birds, folk tales and the plots of the four famous Chinese classics. The painters condensed thousands of years of Chinese history and culture on this long corridor.

Not far from the end of the corridor is the Marble Boat. Shifang, also known as Qingyanfang, is taken from the meaning of Haiqing Riveryan, and it is the place where Empress Dowager Cixi watched the scenery and had banquets. It is located in the northwest of Kunming Lake, on the shore of the west foot of Longevity Mountain. It was built in the 20th year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1755) and rebuilt in 1893. The hull is carved out of huge stones, with a total length of 36 meters and a height of 8 meters. The two-story white wooden buildings on the ship are all decorated with marble patterns with paint, and the top is decorated with brick carvings, which are exquisite and gorgeous.

It can be seen that there are more water repellents added after Empress Dowager Cixi on the current stone boat.

This scenery reminds me of Bai Juyi's "A Spring Journey to Qiantang Lake" in which "the surface of the water is at first level, the clouds are low and the feet are low".

Paiyun Temple Wharf

Now, tourists can take a boat tour of the lake at the pier. But I feel that if you can use a hand-operated boat or a pole-painted boat, it will be more artistic, rather than this kind of modern motor boat.

Anion Bridge. Located on the northwest side of Shifang.

Walking along the lake from the East Palace Gate, Wenchang Pavilion is not far away (there are four places in the Summer Palace that need to be purchased separately: Virtuous Harmony Garden, Wenchang Courtyard, Foxiang Pavilion and Suzhou Street, Suzhou Street is not recommended). Wenchang Pavilion is a traditional sacrificial building, built to worship the legendary god who is in charge of literary fame and fame, and to ensure the prosperity of a party's literary style. In ancient times, it was believed that the Emperor Wenchang enshrined in the Wenchang Pavilion was the star who presided over the fame and fame of the literary movement. At present, there are 35 Wenchang Pavilions in all provinces and cities across the country, the most famous of which is the Wenchang Pavilion in the Summer Palace. Wenchang Pavilion is the largest of the six urban management buildings in the Summer Palace. After it was burned down by the British and French allied forces, it was rebuilt during the Guangxu period, and the original three-story main pavilion was changed to a second-story one.

Wenchang Courtyard is located in the east of Wenchang Pavilion. Now the entrance of Wenchangyuan is very hidden and inconspicuous. After passing through a gray brick door, the gate of Wenchangyuan is on the left less than 20 meters away. And the middle of these two gates was changed to a parking lot, so it is extremely easy to confuse tourists (I just walked back and forth five or six times, and then I found it after hearing the chats of local residents who often enter the garden). In Wenchang courtyard, authentic cultural relics from the Shang and Zhou dynasties to the late Qing Dynasty are displayed.

Going out of the west gate of Wenchang Courtyard, there is a gate in the north—the gate of Yelu Chucai Temple.

Yelu Chucai, courtesy name Jinqing, nickname Yuquan old man, nickname Zhanran layman, Khitan nationality, a statesman during the Mongol Empire. He is the eighth grandson of Yelubei, king of Dongdan in the Liao Dynasty, and the son of Yelulu, Shangshu Youcheng of the Jin Dynasty. In Jinshi to the left and right division members Wai Lang. When the Mongolian army captured Jinzhongdu, Genghis Khan accepted Yelu Chucai as his minister. Yelu Chucai served as Prime Minister Genghis Khan and his son for more than 30 years, and served as Zhongshu Ling for 14 years. He proposed the Confucian way of governing the country and formulated various governance strategies, which laid the foundation for the development of the Mongolian Empire and the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty. Yelu Chucai won the appreciation of Genghis Khan for his outstanding talent and profound knowledge, and was recruited as his senior staff. Yelu Chucai followed Genghis Khan and participated in the Western Expedition that swept across half the world, and had a profound and huge impact on his decision to finally stop the conquest and withdraw his troops to return east. When he was dying, Genghis Khan also asked his successor Okuotai: Yelu Chucai was sent to us by heaven and must be entrusted with a heavy responsibility. According to historical records, during the brutal war of conquering the world during the Western Expedition and the Northern Expedition, the Mongols would massacre all the people in the city to vent their anger when encountering resisters. Until the early years of the Yuan Dynasty, some high-ranking Mongolian officials even advocated: "The Han people are of no benefit to the country, but they can be emptied of their people and regarded as pasture land." This is an extremely terrifying policy. Grazing land means transforming farming civilization into nomadic civilization. This series of policies that might lead to rivers of blood was finally stopped under the persuasion and remonstrance of Yelu Chucai, which saved the Chinese nation from a catastrophe.

When Naimazhen came to proclaim the system, Yelu Chucai was squeezed out and gradually lost trust. In the early Yuan Dynasty, three years after Naimazhen, Yelu Chucai died of illness at the age of 55 on the Mongolian plateau. He went to Zhuguo as a teacher, and was granted the title of King Guangning, with the posthumous title of "Wenzheng". At that time, Yuan Taizu Wo Kuotai had passed away, and the sixth queen Ma Zhen said that he was in power. In accordance with Yelu Chucai's last wish, she transported the body back to the hometown of Yanjing, and buried him in the birthplace he was very attached to during his lifetime - the bank of Wengshan Po (now Kunming Lake) at the foot of Yuquan Mountain, and was buried with his wife who passed away in the same year. For hundreds of years, literati and dignitaries of all dynasties have visited the ancestral hall and cemetery of Yelu Chucai to pay their respects, and there has been an endless stream of inscriptions and chants, leaving behind many poems and songs. In the fifteenth year of Qianlong, Emperor Qianlong, out of admiration, ordered to rebuild the tomb of Yelu Chucai and build three ancestral halls. He personally wrote imperial poems and erected tombstones. Taiwan's Anbang's merits in governing the country have been highly appraised.

The Yelu Chucai Temple has already closed its doors and is not open to the public.

Then move forward, and you can reach the Seventeen-Arch Bridge after passing the Tongniu.

The bronze bull in the Summer Palace, the size of a real bull, is located on the embankment to the north of the Kuoru Pavilion. In the Qing Dynasty, people called it the Golden Bull. It is a masterpiece cast by the ancient lost wax method in my country. At that time, in the 20th year of Qianlong (1755), Emperor Qianlong, who was very happy, followed the legend of Dayu's water control and imitated the practice of iron cattle in the Tang Dynasty. He ordered craftsmen to cast a copper bull. The whole body was gilded and decorated here in the hope that it would be able to "Yongzhen Youshui" subdues the flood for a long time, bringing endless blessings to the garden and the people nearby. In order to explain the significance of building the copper bull, Emperor Qianlong specially wrote a four-character inscription, which was engraved on the belly and back of the copper bull in seal script. In fact, placing copper bulls here also has scientific significance - to examine the role of the water level of Kunming Lake. According to scientific research, the east embankment of Kunming Lake is about 10 meters higher than the foundation of the Forbidden City. In the past, in the year of heavy rain, the area around Kunming Lake became flooded. In order to prevent the east embankment of Kunming Lake from bursting and causing damage to the Forbidden City, copper bulls were set up here to observe the water level of the lake and know how much higher the water level is than the city wall of the imperial palace at any time. , in order to strengthen the protection, so as not to make the palace suffer from floods.

In 1860, the British and French invaders invaded Beijing and occupied the Summer Palace. The British and French allied forces learned that there was a golden bull in the garden. They thought it was made of pure gold, so some soldiers sneaked into the Summer Palace at night and planned to smuggle it out of the garden. After he cut it off with a knife, he left a hole on the back of the bull. When he looked closely, he found that it was a gold-plated copper bull. He scraped off the gold-plated layer with a knife and stole it. Since then, Tongniu has lost its original golden appearance, and has survived a hundred years of wind and rain with the knife marks on its back.

During the Tongzhi period, the copper bull that had escaped the fire of the British and French allied forces was injured again. Zhang Bayuan, who served as a gardener in the Old Summer Palace, saw off the tail of the copper bull and sold it as scrap copper. In the 10th year of Guangxu, Empress Dowager Cixi began to rebuild Qingyi Garden. During the restoration period, the royal regulations stipulate that no one can enter and leave Qingyi Garden at will. After eleven years, in 1901, Japanese photographer Ben Zanshichiro took a photo of a copper bull, which showed that the broken tail of the copper bull had been patched. However, whether the added tail is the same as the original tail has become an unsolved mystery.

The ill-fated Tongniu has been waiting by the Kunming Lake for more than 260 years, with the scars on his body and the inscription on his abdomen: "Xiayu governs the river, the Iron Bull is praised, righteousness is important to Anlan, and future generations will follow. Houkun. Flood dragons are far away, and there are many turtles. This Kunming is full of thousands of hectares. Gold is written as a sacred cow, and it is used to keep you forever. Baqiu Huai River runs through the same river. People call it Hanwu. I admire Tangyao, Rui The talisman should be caught in the West Sea. I respectfully confer auspiciousness, Qianlong Yihai." Looking forward to the distant mountains and near waters of the Summer Palace.

Kuoru Pavilion, commonly known as Bafang Pavilion among the people, is the largest existing pavilion in my country. The construction area is 384.95 square meters, the plane is octagonal, each side shows 3 rooms, there are corridors around, double eaves, eight ridges and pointed round tops, and a total of 42 pillars in the pavilion. There is a wooden plaque (8 pieces in total) on each side of the pavilion, on which Qianlong imperial poems are engraved.

It is connected to the Kuoru Pavilion in the east and the Seventeen-Arch Bridge on Nanhu Island in the west. It is 150 meters long and can be called the largest bridge in Chinese gardens. The bridge is 14.6 meters wide below the deck, 6.56 meters wide above the bridge, and 7 meters high. There are 17 bridge holes in total, so it is called the Seventeen-Arch Bridge. There are two stone-carved strange beasts at both ends of the railing of the bridge, commonly known as "backing dragons", which are powerful and vivid. The Seventeen-Arch Bridge has a total of 124 pillars and 122 railings ((the records of the Summer Palace record that there are 248 pillars and 244 railings). There are 544 stone lions with different expressions and sizes carved on the pillars. There are more stone lions on Lugou Bridge.

The famous Golden Light Piercing

The establishment of the winter solstice is related to the angle of illumination between the sun and the earth. As early as the Spring and Autumn Period more than 2,500 years ago, Chinese ancestors used Tugui to observe the sun and determined the winter solstice, which falls between December 21 and 23 in the Gregorian calendar every year. This day is the shortest day and longest night of the year in the northern hemisphere. The "golden light entering the cave" is an astronomical and natural phenomenon that occurs in the days before and after the winter solstice when "the sun almost shines directly on the Tropic of Capricornus, and the sun is most inclined to the northern hemisphere." About ten days before and after the winter solstice, the setting sun has tilted. As long as it is a sunny day, the warm light of the setting sun can already shine into the seventeen-hole bridge hole, and the phenomenon of "golden light piercing through the hole" will appear.

Nanhu Island and Longevity Hill face each other far away

Luding Bridge is famous for its stone lions of different shapes. It is said that "there are countless lions on Lugou Bridge". In fact, there are more stone lions on Seventeen-Arch Bridge than on Lugou Bridge.

The stone lions on the bridge have long been mottled. For hundreds of years, they have sat quietly on the watchtower, bearing the scars of the years, silently watching the changes in the garden and the changes in history.

Nanhu Island, also known as Penglai Island, is located in Kunming Lake, covering an area of ​​more than one hectare. There are Longwang Temple, Jianyuan Hall, Danhuixuan, Yuebo Tower, Yunxiang Pavilion and so on on the circular island. On the north shore of Nanhu Island, rockery is piled up, and there is a stone cave between Lancui, on which there was originally a Wangchan Pavilion imitating the Yellow Crane Tower in Dongting Lake, implying that this is a fairyland of the Moon Palace. The main building on the island is the Hanxu Hall on the rockery in the north of the island. It used to be the place where the emperors and empresses of the Qing Dynasty enjoyed the moon and watched the performance of the navy.

Sprouts in front of the Moon Wave Tower. Yuebo Tower is said to be Cixi's study.

The Dragon King Temple on Nanhu Island is now called Guangrun Lingyu Temple. It was named after Song Zhenzong named the Dragon King of Xihai as Guangrun King. The plaque in front of the temple "Lingyan Xiawei" means that the famous temple reflects the glow of the sun. Among them, "Lingyan" is the synonym for famous Chinese temples, which means that this place is a famous temple. The statues of the Dragon King and the gods of wind, rain, thunder and lightning were originally enshrined in the temple, but they were later destroyed. After restoration, the statue of the Dragon King was reshaped, still with a golden face and a white robe. The preservation of Dragon God and Guangrun Lingyu Temple is intended to reflect their symbolic role in landscaping

The West Causeway is a long causeway winding from northwest to southeast in Kunming Lake in the Summer Palace. There are six bridges on the Su Causeway of West Lake in Hangzhou, and six bridges on the West Causeway of Kunming Lake. The willow tree was also copied to the west embankment of Kunming Lake.

At that time, I didn't take photos one by one. The above six photos covering the four seasons were all downloaded from the Internet.

The West Embankment among the willows in the water sky has the charm of the south of the Yangtze River. This practice bridge makes people feel like they are in Yangzhou. Needless to say, it was really around one o'clock in the afternoon.