In the Qing Dynasty, the royal family built five theater buildings: the Qingyinge Grand Theater in Yuanmingyuan in the fourth year of Yongzheng (AD 1726), the Qingyinge Theater in the Summer Resort in the 19th year of Qianlong (AD 1754), and the 41st year of Qianlong’s Imperial Palace. The Grand Theater of Shou'an Palace, the Grand Theater of Changyinge in the Imperial Palace in the 41st year of Qianlong and the Grand Theater of Virtuous Harmony in the Summer Palace in the 21st year of Guangxu (AD 1895). These five big stages are all three-story big stages, the largest in history. The Shou'an Palace theater building in the palace was demolished in the fourth year of Jiaqing (1799 AD); Qingyin Pavilion in Yuanmingyuan was destroyed by the British and French allied forces in the tenth year of Xianfeng (1860 AD); Qingyin Pavilion in the Summer Resort was destroyed by the Japanese invaders in 1945 . Now there are only two large theater buildings in Changyin Pavilion in the palace and Dehe Garden in the Summer Palace.

Cixi likes to listen to operas. Changyin Pavilion is her theater in the palace, which was repaired in the 17th year of Guangxu. In addition to these two big theaters, there are also several theaters in the palace and the Summer Palace, including the Changchun Palace in the palace and the Oriole Pavilion in the Summer Palace. Those are only small plays, and the big plays still have to be performed on the big stage.

As mentioned earlier, the corridor at the north gate of the Emperor’s Backyard in the Summer Palace can directly lead to the Dehe Garden. Therefore, this Dehe Garden is connected to the corridor, so it can be regarded as a building on the corridor. This location was the Yichun Hall in the period of Qingyi Garden, which was the emperor's private hall at that time. Yichun Hall is adjacent to the emperor's backyard, and you can easily enter Yulan Hall or Yiyun Hall from the hallway door of the East Wing. Lao Gan once personally wrote a small poem "Yi Chun Tang": "One yuan mediates, when everything happens. There is no air and no warmth, and all emotions are full of joy. Taihe is brewing, and the beauty is not too late. Ask Yichun Where, the book hall does not know." You see, he connected Yichun Hall and Yiyun Hall together.

In the twenty-fourth year of Daoguang (AD 1844), the year of the Shenchen Dragon in the lunar calendar, the year of "nine purples and away from the fire" in the Chinese calendar, was full of disasters and disasters. The Qing Dynasty had already begun to sink into the sunset in the "decline of Jiadao", and had just signed the "Nanjing Treaty" after being humiliated in the Opium War that broke out in the 20th year of Daoguang. In the twenty-fourth year of Daoguang, Hong Xiuquan founded the religion of worshiping God, and Li Lianying entered the world for the first time. These are all bad omens. As a sign of luck for the new year, a fire broke out in the Summer Palace, and the Yichun Hall in the north of Renshou Hall was burned down.

In the twelfth year of Guangxu (AD 1886), the Summer Palace began to be rebuilt, and a new large theater building was built on the ruins of Yichun Hall. It was completed in the 21st year. This is the Virtuous Harmony Garden.

Enter the Summer Palace through the East Palace Gate, and if you go west from the south wall after watching the Hall of Renshou, you will go to the dormitory of the Empress Dowager, which is also the route described in this collection. If you look at the Hall of Renshou and then the Yannian Well, and then walk backward along the north wall, you can see the gate of the Dehe Garden facing south.

The term "Dehe" first came from "Yanzi Chunqiu" in the Spring and Autumn Period, which is the record of the words and deeds of Yan Ying, a senior official in Qi State. When Yan Zi and Qi Jinggong discussed the difference between harmony and harmony, they once said: "A gentleman listens to music with five tones and six rhythms, so that he can calm his heart. The heart is peaceful and harmonious, so the "Poetry" says: 'The sound of virtue is not flawed'". The "poetry" said that the sound of virtue is flawless means that the reputation is flawless, and Yanzi said that the mind is peaceful and the virtue is harmonious, which means the mind is peaceful and the character is harmonious. Cixi titled this garden "Dehe", which means that she came here to listen to operas and cultivate her sentiments.

As a relatively large courtyard in the Summer Palace, the gate of Dehe Garden is much more low-key than other gardens in the garden. It is an ordinary wide and bright gate, unlike other places that are house-style gates, or simply a hall. . The royal style of the gate is reflected in its gilt decoration, both on the spiers and rafters, and in the ornate official Su style gold thread painting on the cornice transom. There is a three-foot-high base under the gate, which runs through things, indicating that the ground in the courtyard is three feet higher than the outside.

Entering this gate, there is a wooden screen wall in front of you.

In fact, this cannot be called a screen wall, but a screen door that cannot be opened, and is only used for decoration. The wooden red door frame is covered with a gray tile rolling shed hanging from the top of the mountain, and there are a pair of granite drum stone door pier below. The dark green door leaf is the screen of the screen door. There are golden lacquered bat horns on the four corners, and the golden lacquered box in the middle is "Five Blessings Holding Longevity".

The circle around the courtyard of Dehe Garden is not a corridor, but a verandah.

Turning the screen door, you can see the big theater building.

The theater building faces north from the south. When you enter the Dehe Garden, you can see it from the south. This is the backstage dressing room, which is the theater building. The two-story theater building behind Changyin Pavilion in the palace was not built at the same time as the theater building. The theater building in Dehe Garden was built at the same time as the main theater building, showing a tight consistency. The playing building and the theater building sit on the same five-foot-high green brick platform, with five rooms wide and two rooms deep, and three rooms in the south, with enclosed eaves. There are four and five partition doors in the open room and the second room that leave the building. This time, it is not a "gong"-shaped lattice flower, but a step-by-step brocade. Before leaving the building, step out of the steps, two floors and three roads with hanging belts. The playing building is a two-story pavilion, with bucket arches and beams, and gray tile rolling sheds resting on the top of the mountain. There is a flat seat on the second floor, and there is a dark layer. Red pillars, red doors and windows, and gold-pasted Ssangyong and seal paintings on the square beams, it is a royal style. On the south side of the theater building is the entrance and exit of the cast and crew. It is also very elegant, so that the stars of the show can see what is called a royal atmosphere.

Look at the partition window of the theater building.

Although there are some gilt decorations, they are not lead forged leaves, so they cannot be called "golden locks".

There are verandah rooms on both sides of the theater building, which divide the yard into several entrances. The hallway in the middle of the veranda is the gate to the next courtyard. The foundation of this veranda is much higher than that of the east and west verandas, almost as high as the foundation of the theater building.

Pass through the corridor door of the verandah room and enter the second entrance courtyard. Go to the side and look at the theater building.

The base of the stage is only four feet, which means that the ground of the second courtyard is one foot higher than that of the first courtyard. The theater building is a three-storey pavilion with very large bays and great depth. It shows that the stage is so big that Sun Wukong's somersaulting cloud can't get out. Go to the front of the stage and have a look.

The architectural form of this theater building is the same as Changyin Pavilion in the palace, and the scale is also the same. They are all handcrafted by Style Lei, and they are much larger than the stage of Tingli Pavilion. Three-story pavilion style, the first floor is open on three sides, which is convenient for watching operas; although each floor is a resting eaves, it is angled, and it can also be called the third floor with angled and double eaves. This is a three-bright and two-dark five-storey pavilion, with bucket arches, beams, gray tiles and single eaves on the top of the mountain. There are seven ridge beasts on each ridge. Like Renshou Hall, there are no immortals riding chickens. Although the beams under the eaves are still painted with gold double dragons and seals, the pillars are red and green. The ancients had a lofty word to describe such a building, called "Chongtai Yange", Chong means sublime; Yan means grown up. Nan Chen Xiaoqi (Nian Que) has a saying: "The Chongtai is a hundred feet high, looking out from the fairy palace. The painting is full of vigor, and the flying beam shines on the evening rainbow".

Look inside the stage.

This stage is a three-sided viewing stage, with three bays wide and three bays deep, with the front two being the front stage and the rear one being the backstage. The tents between the front and back are decorated with gold embroidery, and in the middle is "Five Blessings Holding Longevity", and there is also a "Swastika" on the "Shou" character, which is the symbol of the "Wan" character, which means that there is no limit to longevity. There are all kinds of good things tied with ribbons in the sky around, which is extremely auspicious. "Out of the generals" and "into the phase" are the doors for actors to go on and off the stage. The little guys stood on the second-floor platform above the tent, waving flags and shouting, and when they were fighting, they came down the stairs on both sides to join the team. In the past, you could go to the stage to see what happened, and you could go upstairs. It's not going to work now, so I can only send a camera to watch it. Take a look at the Xiachang Gate and its surroundings.

On the first floor is a gilded "Five Blessings Holding Longevity" Pingqi ceiling, which is very gorgeous. The square hole in the middle is regarded as a courtyard, leading directly to the uppermost floor, and each floor above has railings and doors around the opening. There is a set of human winches on the top floor, which I saw when I went up many years ago. This hoist can hang heavenly soldiers and generals down from the upper level to fight monsters, and it can also hoist the old Taoist who became immortal from the lower level to the sky.

The upper stage of the Deheyuan Grand Theater is called Futai, the middle stage is Lutai, and the lower stage is Shoutai. There is a ground well in the middle of the first floor of the stage facing the patio. There are real wells and pools in it. When the plot requires, the manhole cover can be opened to spray water outside. Bodhisattvas can also sit on lotus flowers and ascend from underground wells to perform exercises. In short, the stage installed the most high-tech devices of the year, and some sci-fi films were performed, and ordinary people didn't have to watch them.

This big stage is a complete copy of the Changyin Pavilion in the palace. When Guangxu Gaidehe Garden, the Qingyin Pavilion in the Yuanmingyuan was gone, and the Qingyin Pavilion in the Summer Resort was too far away, so the Changyin Pavilion in the palace was copied.

Just now you saw that the pillars on the pillars around the stage are quite thick, so you can take a look inside again.

The same thick corner truss is also built between the columns, which is the reinforcement of the Chinese-style frame structure and increases the load-bearing capacity of the ceiling.

Standing on the front of the stage and looking up to watch, there are couplets on each floor. The horizontal plaque under the eaves on the first floor reads "Happy Groups and Glorious Exposure", which means the glorious exposure of the happy drama. Couplets are hung on the eaves and pillars, and the first couplet is "Shanshui Association Voiceless Dragon Club Eight Winds and Phoenix Tune Nine Plays". Unvoiced sound is a soft voice. Zuo Si, a poet in the Western Jin Dynasty, had a sentence that "it is not necessary to have silk and bamboo, but mountains and rivers have unvoiced sounds". Eight winds, "Zuo Zhuan" has "five tones in harmony, eight winds flat", which means eight tones, and the way to cultivate ears. Here it refers to music in general. Feng Tiao Jiu Zuo, the ancient royal music has Jiu Shao, called "Jiu Zuo", "Shang Shu" has "90% of "Xiao Shao", Phoenix Comes to Yi". The second couplet is "Gongshang Harmony Faqu Xiangde Liuyun Yanle Yanghe". Gongshang is the Chinese pentatonic scale; Faqu is a kind of great music beyond Jiushao; Xiangde: the virtue of the people's behavior and obedience to the emperor. Flowing rhyme: Flowing music, King Luo Bin of the Tang Dynasty had a sentence of "accumulating colorful Mingshu tents, flowing rhyme around the piano platform". Yanle is banquet music, which goes with the meal. Nourishment means health preservation.

The horizontal plaque under the eaves on the second floor "Taiping Yutai" means the world is peaceful, the country is peaceful and the people are safe. Couplets are hung on the pillars of the porch, and the first couplet is "the perfect combination of seven politics, Yanji, Hengzhu and Zhulian". Qizheng is the five planets plus the sun and the moon; Yan is the deduction; The perfect combination of pearls, "Hanshu" has "the sun and the moon are like a pair of jade; five stars are like pearls". The second couplet is "Four Seasons Tuning Lu Yu Festival Jinhe", which is the same as the second couplet of the couplet on the eaves and pillars of Paiyun Gate.

The horizontal plaque under the eaves on the third floor reads "Qingyan Changchen". Although this plaque occupies the position of the plaque, it is not a plaque like the "Changyin Pavilion" in the palace. Qingyan is a celebration performance, Changchen is a prosperous age, and a grand performance is performed to celebrate the peaceful and prosperous age. Song Huizong has "Man Ting Fang" which says, "From here to celebrate, it will be more and more, and the thousand years will be happy and prosperous." There are couplets hanging on the pillars of the porch, and the first couplet reads: "The opening of the territory in all directions is longevity." The second couplet "it is always spring when the surname Zhao goes on stage" is taken from the sentence of Yang Weizhen in the Yuan Dynasty "Yinghua is like a brocade in March, spring is like a brocade, and the surname Zhao sings songs to celebrate Taiping". The term "common people" refers to nobles and ordinary people in Pingzhang when there is no emperor. After the first emperor, the common people are the common people, the common people. The population of Qin State was 25 million; in the 27th year of Guangxu, the population of Qing State was 430 million. Obviously, "common people" is not as suitable as "surname Zhao" to describe the producers of Min Zhi Min Gao.

In the past, this was the royal stage, and now there are no plays, but it cannot be said that there are no plays. Every day when the auspicious time comes, there will be girls appearing on the stage, dancing gracefully in long-sleeved shirts.

With long sleeves, she dances repeatedly, and dances lightly to her descendants. Close the bottle to promote the table, and punish each other when it is full. Happy drinking Jinxi, drunk for many months.

On the opposite side of the stage, facing south from the north, the hall is Cixi's theater viewing box, that is, the theater viewing building. It is said to be an opera building, but it is actually a palace.

The main hall sits on a three-foot-high blue brick platform, seven rooms wide and three rooms deep, with eaves corridors at the front and back. Open the door in the open room, sill the wall and sill the window in the second room, a little room, and the last room. On the top are bucket arches and beams, gray tile rolling sheds on the top of the mountain, seven ridge beasts on the ridges, and gold-pasted double dragons and seals on the square beams, which are magnificent. Go forward and take a look at the decoration on the lattice core of the open door, and the gold-plated woodcut five blessings and longevity.

On the day I came, I couldn't go in and visit. There were two palace men standing at the door, a palace lady standing inside the door poking her head, and a palace man standing outside the door sneaking around.

The plaque under the eaves is the bilingual "Yile Palace" in Manchu and Chinese. Those who love, nourish also. Music (nianyue) is the general name of five tones and eight tones, that is, music. In the Ming Dynasty, a door plaque "Dai Ri Teng Yu" was hung on the door. Wearing the sun means wearing the sun on the head. In the Song Dynasty, Liu Chang had a sentence that "Han Chun is at a glance, and Dai Ri is still Xiaosen". Teng Yu: Jubilation. This plaque means that when Xiang Xiang listened to the opera on a sunny day, the audience was full of joy, dancing on the stage and full of voices from the audience. This is just dragging and piling up rhetoric, which belongs to duckweed in water and has no foundation.

There is a pair of couplets on the pillars in the Ming Dynasty: Pines and cypresses, Changchun paintings, Jiqing, Penglai Yishengjing, outstanding composition. Misty is clouds and mist, which means gathering here. Qin Guan in Song Dynasty had "the mist condenses the spring state, melts and melts to beautify the dawn". Jie is outstanding; structure is structure. Does this couplet mean that sitting here and listening to an opera is like a fairyland on earth?

There is also a pair of couplets on the doorpost in the Ming Dynasty: Pearl and Jade Nine Heavens Yuanyin Harmonious Rhythm; A vowel is a big sound. The six books are the Confucian Six Classics, Poetry, Book, Ritual, Music, Book of Changes, and Spring and Autumn Annals. Taishi is Dashi, Songshan is also.饫 (Nianyu): full, full. Moshang (Nian Moshang), Tang Dynasty Feng Zhi's "Ji Shizhu" said that "there is a stone room at the foot of Songgao Mountain named Moshang, and there are countless fairy books in it." In fact, there was no such person as Feng Zhi in the Tang Dynasty, but it was invented by people in the Song Dynasty. This couplet means that the sound of the pearl and jade music of the great sound reaches nine days, and all the songs are sung by the ancients and the fairy books in the mountains.

Go to the door and look inside.

The floor of the hall is made of gold bricks, the ceiling is covered with sea wall, and the walls are pasted with high-grade wallpaper, made of silk. In the Ming Dynasty, there is a red sandalwood platform. Instead of a dragon chair and throne, the platform is a red sandalwood Arhat bed. There are five red sandalwood screens standing behind the Arhat bed, which are also painted with gold lacquer and enamel and a hundred birds facing the phoenix. Its gold-pasted and hollowed-out wooden Pilu hat is so gorgeous, it must have been custom-made by the Guangdong Customs Office, showing the highest level of Lingnan woodcuts in the late Qing Dynasty.

After the Ming Dynasty, the golden pillars were decorated horizontally, and a paper plaque of "Rong Jing Deng Hong" was hung on it. In the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties, there was a Xie Zhuang, who was a descendant of Xie An, the iron-blooded prime minister of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In the eulogy he wrote for the memorial service of Emperor Xiaowu Liu Jun of Liu Song Dynasty, there is "the glory of the mirror in the world, the glory of the past", which is a eulogy. Rongjing means brilliance, and Yi Yi (reading drama) is also brilliance, but it has the meaning of stretching. The ancient times mentioned in Xie Zhuang's sour words only refer to the ancient times of Liu and Song Dynasties, and it is certainly not possible to say that they are as old as the Three Emperors and Five Emperors.

If you want to talk about the Three Emperors and Five Emperors, you need to look at the writings of Yang Xiong in the Han Dynasty. Yang Xiong was a small gift (when to read it) during the period of Liu Ao, the last emperor of the Western Han Dynasty, and he was a famous pen. Once hunting with Emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty, he went up the mountain to hunt hares. Yang Xiong is not driving to carry the feather arrow, but to be an accompanying reporter. After returning, he wrote a famous "Fu on Feather Hunting". Among them, when praising Mingjun, there are "the outline of the five emperors, and the ascendance of the three emperors; build morality as a teacher, and benevolence and righteousness as friends". "Liaokuo" and "Denghong" are high and far, which means the broad place in the sky. Cixi puts a hundred birds facing the phoenix here, and also writes Rong Jing Deng Hong, wanting to say that she is the king of all birds, illuminating the whole universe, and is more powerful than the queen mother.

Mingjian is the seat where Empress Dowager Cixi listens to operas, and she can lie down or crooked when she is tired from sitting. The female relatives who accompanied her to the theater sat in the east and west rooms and looked at the east room.

There is a small Buddhist hall in the east end, whether to worship the Buddha or not, but there must be a Buddhist hall, and it must be the farthest room on the left hand side of the main room. As usual, the west room is a bedroom, and I guess only Cixi can take a nap here.

Opposite the stage is the theater viewing building, and the verandas on the east and west sides are theater viewing corridors.

There are ten private rooms on each corridor, and there are tables, chairs and benches in the private rooms, where you can sit and drink tea and eat snacks while listening to the play.

Take a closer look inside the private room.

This is a new addition in recent years. There is one room for each of the six divisions and Jiuqing. The minister of this department is the top seat, and the servant sits down. In fact, the princes and clans should sit on the left corridor, and other ministers and workers should sit on the right corridor.

The courtyard of Dehe Garden is larger than Changyin Pavilion in the palace, so it looks more spacious and not as tangled as Changyin Pavilion. Cixi took a group of female relatives to listen to the opera in the Yile Hall, and the princes and clan relatives of the second rank and above sat in the east and west corridors, and the male guests were not allowed to bring the servants into the arena. If the unlucky Guangxu was fined to accompany the Queen Mother to listen to the opera, he could enter the Hall of Yile, and he was not allowed to fight with the female guests between the operas. You see in the above picture of Yile Palace that there are stands on both sides of the front, it is fake, don't take it seriously. On the square in front of the Yile Hall, there are a number of tables and chairs for the Eight Immortals, where the courtiers below the second rank who are appreciating the opera sit, which is the pool seat. There is also hot tea, that is, drinking royal tribute tea; there is also a traditional snack in Northeast China, fried sunflower seeds. How to say hello during the performance of the big play? There is no record, I guess it should be following the Queen Mother's imperial order. When Cixi clapped, she clapped, and when Cixi stomped, she stomped; male guests could say hello, but female guests were not allowed to make a sound.

What play is being sung on stage? The Sanqing troupe mentioned earlier was the first opera troupe to come to Beijing, singing Hui opera, and came to Beijing to celebrate Lord Qianlong's 80th birthday. Before that, Kunqu opera was popular in the capital, and that was in the early Qing Dynasty. During the Qianlong period, Kunqu Opera declined, while Beijing Opera and Qin Opera gradually rose. After the Hui troupe came to Beijing, in the early years of Daoguang, there were some major figures of Hubei Han opera who came to Beijing to join the Hui troupe. From Daoguang to Xianfeng, Hui, Han, Beijing, Qin and Kun merged to form Peking Opera. By the time Cixi listened to operas in Dehe Garden during the Guangxu period, the Sanqing troupe that first entered Beijing was already a well-known Peking Opera troupe. At that time, it was the old students who led the trend, and Tan Xinpei was the best, and everyone followed him. Cixi also announced him into the palace to perform. In addition to Peking Opera, royal women also listen to Lianhualuo (Nianluo), which is a rap art that originated in Laoting (Nianluoting) in Hebei. This kind of rap art usually does not need such a large stage, and it can be sung in a short time in the East of Yile Hall. At that time, Zhao Kuishun, the famous actor of Lotus Fall, often entered the palace to perform for Empress Dowager Cixi.

In addition to Empress Dowager Cixi, Concubine Jin of Emperor Guangxu also liked to listen to operas. She also organized a troupe in Yonghe Palace where she lived. She also loves to listen to Lotus Falling, because she couldn't go to the Summer Palace alone to listen to the opera, so she recruited Zhao Kuishun to sing Lotus Falling in Yonghe Palace. When Emperor Xuantong entered the palace, Empress Dowager Longyu took care of him. After Empress Dowager Longyu died, it was Concubine Jin who took care of the children. Puyi called her a concubine. Concubine Jin loves to listen to operas, and also loves to eat, especially the soy pork knuckle from Tianfuhao. When I was in my fifties, I ate too much during the Mid-Autumn Festival, and I was stuffed to death. Buried in the Western Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty, the tomb was robbed by bad guys.

At the end of the performance on the grand stage of Dehe Garden, the actors and staff should also stand on the three floors of the stage like Changying Pavilion in the palace, applauding enthusiastically and looking at Cixi eagerly at the same time. This is asking for rewards. Cixi called Xiao Lizi and asked someone to stand under the stage and throw sugar balls on the stage. This is a reward.

There are not three ear rooms on the east and west sides of Yile Hall, but a circle of verandah rooms in the courtyard of Dehe Garden. Like the verandahs on both sides of the theater building, the bright rooms on both sides of the Yile Hall are also hall rooms, which also serve as the gates of the second and third courtyards. Look at the verandas on both sides of the Yile Hall.

The hall door is opened in the open room of the verandah room, the sill wall and sill window in the second room are closed, and there are eaves corridors in the front and back. The upper part is a bucket arch and beam structure, and the gray tile single-eave rolling shed is a hard mountain top. The eaves of the verandah pass through the mountain to connect with the eaves of the Yile Hall.

It can be seen that there are two steps up from the east and west verandas to the Yile Hall verandas, and two steps up from the east and west verandas of Yile Hall to Yile Hall. This is called backgammon. There is a painting on the gable wall of the front eaves corridor of the Yile Hall. Take a look at this painting. It has the same theme as the one seen in the Dehui Hall on the Paiyun Temple Hill. It is the white lady stealing fairy grass.

The verandah houses in Dehe Garden are the same, with bucket arches and beams, and gray tiles with single eaves and rolling sheds on the top of the mountain. The square beams under the eaves are full of official Soviet-style paintings, and the interior of the house is a sea wall ceiling. Of these verandas, only the East and West of Yile Hall have eaves and corridors. Why? Because the front eaves corridor of Yile Hall goes westward, and there is a door at the north end of the viewing corridor on the west side.

This door goes out like this.

Yes, this is the north gate of Yiyun Hall mentioned last time. The corridors on both sides of the north gate lead to the Leshou Hall. The Empress Dowager Cixi can walk directly from the Leshou Hall to the Yile Hall in Deheyuan along this corridor. Emperor Guangxu's Empress Yehenala can also go here. If it doesn't rain, she can go out through the hallway door of the east wing of Yiyun Hall and enter through the other door of Dehe Garden. Entering through that door is the west veranda of the theater building.

To the west of Yile Hall is to Leshou Hall, and to the east, there is also a gate at the north end of the viewing gallery on the east side.

Going out of this gate is the east side road outside Dehe Garden.

The third courtyard of Deheyuan is closed after the epidemic. If it is open, you can walk to the third courtyard through the hallway doors of the verandahs on both sides of the Yile Hall.

The ground of the third courtyard is one foot higher than that of the second courtyard. A big stone is placed in the middle of the courtyard, and evergreen pines and cypresses are planted on it. Take a look at Qingshantang, the main hall of Sanjinyuan.

Underneath Qingshan Hall is a green brick platform as high as Yile Hall. Because the third courtyard is one foot higher than the second courtyard, the foundation of Qingshan Hall is only two feet high. Although Qingshantang has no glazed tiles, it still has red pillars and red doors and windows, so it can be called a hall. The hall is five rooms wide and three rooms deep, with doors open in the open room and sill walls and windows in the second room, with eaves and corridors on all sides. On the top is the top of the mountain with bucket arches, gray tiles, single eaves, and rolling sheds. There are five ridge beasts on the ridge, which is one level lower than the Yile Hall in front. The square beams under the eaves are pasted with gold double dragons and painted seals. There are a pair of copper vats and a pair of copper tripod furnaces in front of the hall. This is Cixi's side hall, which is equivalent to the Yichun Hall in Qingyi Garden. You can rest here before and after listening to the play, or you can do some informal and cheap things here, such as sitting in the palace and ordering Western painters to paint portraits.

There is no "Qingshantang" plaque under the eaves of Qingshantang. I don't know if it is lost or maintained? There is a plaque on the door "Huanzhuo Zhenfu". Huan and Zhuo (read Zhuo) are both bright and shining; Zhenfu is the rare Furui. In the songs sung when praying for rain in suburban temples in the Song Dynasty, there is "the real person is in the imperial court, come to offer precious amulets". A pair of couplets is hung on the pillars of the corridor in the Ming Dynasty: the fragrance of heaven is low, the golden Qiu is warm, and the palace looks at the colorful phoenix flying from afar. The meaning is taken from Zeng Gong's poem "Heavenly fragrance is dark and golden Qiu is warm, and the palace fans are double-opened with colorful phoenixes". Speed ​​is crossing, Qiu is Qiulong.

There are supporting halls on both sides of Qingshan hall, look at the east supporting hall.

The base of the side hall is half a foot lower than that of the main hall, five rooms wide and two rooms deep, with eaves and corridors in front. The door is opened in the morning, and the walls and windows are slightly silled in the next room. The upper part is a structure of bucket arches and beams, the gray tile single eaves rolling shed is a hard mountain top, and the square beams under the eaves are painted with gold thread in the official style of the Soviet Union.

In the Ming Dynasty, a plaque of "Spring Tao Jiayue" was hung horizontally on the door. Chuntao: Taochun, happy spring; Jiayue: Jiayue, happy days. Come here to listen to operas in spring and live a happy life. There is a pair of couplets hanging on the pillars of the corridor in the Ming Dynasty: Shanglin Wanshu is connected to Xiye, and the arches of the stars in the North Pole are too small. This couplet comes from the poem "Xin Guan Nei Zhi" written by Zeng Qi (Nian Qi) in the Ming Dynasty. This was done by Zeng Chi when he was on duty for the first time in the imperial palace, which is now the Forbidden City in Beijing. The place where he was on duty should be the cabinet lobby in the south of Wenhua Hall, so he saw many trees. Shanglin refers to Shanglin Garden, the palace garden of the Qin and Han Dynasties; Xiye refers to the outside of Yemen on the west side of the palace; Taiwei means the imperial palace.

The west side hall and the east side hall have the same shape.

There are verandahs on both sides of Yile hall, and there are buildings on both sides of Qingshan hall. They are not closed verandas, but three open pavilions connecting the eaves and corridors of the main hall. On the top is the top of the mountain with bucket arches and beams, gray tiles and single eaves rolling shed. Go in and have a look.

There are lintels between the eaves and pillars, and the upper and lower lattice flowers are different. The upper part is brocade, and the lower part is the word "gong". On the ground of gold bricks, five blessings hold longevity and flat chess. There are corner corridors at the east and west ends connecting to the front eaves corridors of the east and west side halls.

You can call these two open halls the hallway, and passing through the open halls can be said to be the four courtyards of Dehe Garden. I said it can be called a four-entry courtyard because there are three value rooms under the east and west walls of the courtyard.

Behind Qingshan Hall is the north wall of Dehe Garden. On the wall is a door with one hall and one ticket, and there is no verandah inside the door. The door can be seen in the picture above. It is very rare for the north gate of the courtyard to use a vertical flower gate with one hall and one coupon, because its screen door is basically useless. In fact, as long as there is a hanging flower door with one ticket, it is very good, and the hall inside the door is not needed. Outside this gate is the road behind Dehe Garden.

Many years ago, Dehe Garden did not only charge entrance fees. Although the inside was not dilapidated, it was very devastated, with paint and colors peeling off everywhere. I remember that it was rebuilt once in the 1980s. The viewing galleries on both sides of the big stage are exhibition rooms. Start to collect tickets, five yuan separately, twenty for the pass. After the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008, it was overhauled once, and the viewing gallery was restored, which is what it is now.

The Summer Palace is more spacious than the Imperial Palace, and the layout of the Dehe Garden is not as compact as the Changyin Pavilion in the palace. Watching operas in Yile Palace is also more comfortable than Yueshi Building in Changyin Pavilion, and there is a back hall in the backyard that Changyin Pavilion does not have. So speaking of it, Dehe Garden is more comfortable than being in the palace. Cixi loves to listen to operas. At first, when the Taiji Hall in the palace was merged with the Changchun Palace, a small stage was extended to the rear of the Taiji Hall to listen to small operas. When there are major festivals, she invites people to sing in Changyin Pavilion. When Cixi lived in the Summer Palace, she liked to come to Germany and listen to operas when she was in chaos. During the Xianfeng period, the five operas of Hui, Han, Beijing, Qin and Kun merged to form Peking Opera. During the reign of Guangxu, Peking Opera gradually matured. Artists often entered the palace to sing operas for the Queen Mother, which also expanded their influence among the people and accelerated the development of Peking Opera. Cixi has experienced the history of Peking Opera from its formation to maturity, and also promoted this development process from the royal perspective, so Empress Dowager Cixi should have a certain status in the history of Peking Opera development.

The three major theaters in the late Qing Dynasty, I talked about Changying Pavilion in the Forbidden City before, and this time I saw the Dehe Garden in the Summer Palace. These two places were the National Center for the Performing Arts back then. Because Qingyin Pavilion in Chengde Mountain Resort is far away from the capital, the number of times the emperor and his family went to listen to operas is not many, and it no longer exists. The Qingyin Pavilion in the Yuanmingyuan was destroyed early. Cixi should have gone there to listen to the opera, but she had no chance to sit in the seat, which was the seat of Empress Niu Gulu.

After looking around the Dehe Garden, there is no sound of famous actors in my ears. Although the traditional drama has not been annihilated, it is no longer the glory of the past.

A nonsense song "The Occasional Feelings of Virtue and Garden"

There are towering towers, clusters of golden palaces, and red tents and painted squares. The verandah is fragrant, and the cylinder is new. Old stones and trees, old houses are new. Blink, blink, blink.
The sheng and drums are dark, the life is pure and light, and there is only ash in the empty space. The emperor collapsed, Tan Chengfeng. Long sleeves fluttering, the past is like smoke. Pass, pass, pass.

(to be continued)