The photos in this article are all taken by the author of "Black and White Touch", all rights reserved, and unauthorized use is strictly prohibited!

Recommended reading: (Four Ancient Capitals)

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The previous article took you to visit Beihai Park, Jingshan Park, Taoranting Park and 798 Art District in Beijing. Today we will enter the capital again and enjoy the famous places of interest and historic sites in the ancient capital of thousands of years. You will see:

The majestic Badaling Great Wall:

The royal garden full of stories:

Beautiful modern architecture:

And the leisurely and peaceful wine alley:

Without further ado, let's hit the road!

Great Wall

If foreigners were asked to say a few key words about China's impressions, the "Great Wall" would definitely be on the list.

The Great Wall was built more than 2,000 years ago during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. At that time, various countries competed for hegemony, and each built the Great Wall to defend each other. After Qin unified the world, the sections of the Great Wall were connected into the Great Wall. From Shanhaiguan in the east to Jiayuguan in the west, it is about 6,700 kilometers long. The vastness of its projects, majestic momentum, and ingenious layout are rare in the world. It is one of the greatest buildings in the history of human civilization and the crystallization of the hard work and wisdom of the Chinese nation. .

After the Qin Dynasty, successive dynasties have repaired the Great Wall to defend against the invasion of northern nomads. The Great Wall protects the economic and cultural development of the Central Plains, and is a symbol of the bloodline and national spirit of the Chinese nation.

The last dynasty in history to overhaul the Great Wall was the Ming Dynasty. Most of the Great Wall we see today is the Ming Great Wall, and the most famous section is the Badaling Great Wall in Beijing.

The Badaling Great Wall is located at the north entrance of the ancient road in Shanguangou, Jundu, Yanqing District. It is a pass of the Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty and an outpost of Juyongguan, the "Nine Fortresses in the World". In ancient times, it was said that "the danger of juyong is not in the pass but in Badaling", so it is called "Yuguan natural moat".

According to historical records, the Great Wall was built around Badaling during the Warring States Period and Northern Wei Dynasty. Since the eighteenth year of Hongzhi in the Ming Dynasty (1505), the Badaling Great Wall has been built for more than 80 years, with a total length of more than 1300 miles. This is our The Badaling Great Wall that we see now, Qi Jiguang, a famous anti-Japanese general, was later transferred here to command the defense of the Great Wall, and defeated the enemy many times here.

Among the famous sayings about the Great Wall, the most well-known one is "If you don't reach the Great Wall, you are not a hero". This is a sentence in "Qing Ping Le · Liupan Mountain" written by Chairman Mao in October 1935. Mao Zedong was in the Long March. When Zhong led the Red Army to cross Liupan Mountain, he passed a section of the Great Wall in Xiji County, Ningxia. He touched the scene and expressed his lofty ambition to "tie the Canglong". Since then, this rhetoric has spread, and it has become the reason why Chinese people must climb the Great Wall.

Although Mao Zedong wrote this poem in Liupan Mountain, no matter which section of the Great Wall you go to, looking at the endless dragons lying on the high mountains, it is not difficult to come up with "The Great Wall will never fall, and the Yellow River will never fall down." torrential" pride.

At the entrance of the Badaling Great Wall and on the side of the city wall, you can see many stone tablets along the way that read "If you don't reach the Great Wall, you are not a hero".

In the northern part of Badaling, there is also a hero stone standing on the top of the mountain. Standing on the stone, leaning against the Great Wall, facing the mountains, standing with hands behind your back, dancing with long sleeves in the wind, looking at the beauty of the mountains and rivers, you are full of joy and prosperity.. ...Maybe you can have this kind of experience when there are few tourists. Most of the time, there is an endless stream of people taking pictures here. It is a fluke to take a photo without anyone. Standing here to enjoy the scenery is definitely a must less than.

In addition to Badaling, the Great Wall of Beijing, Mutianyu Great Wall is also a famous scenic spot. As far as the scenery is concerned, Mutianyu has rich vegetation and gentle slopes. It is more beautiful than Badaling, and there are relatively few tourists, but in fact, the scenery of Badaling is not far behind (there were not many people during the epidemic).

The mountains in the distance are stretched with indigo daisies, and the nearby vegetation is layered with emerald green. The Great Wall is inlaid in the verdant mountains like a jade belt, undulating and stretching, hidden in the distance like a landscape painting.

The danger of Badaling makes this section of the Great Wall even more majestic. In some places, the steep walls make people tremble with fear. The majesty of the natural moat shown by the exposed rocks makes people think: in ancient times without cranes, how people transported huge stones up the mountain. of?

"The Great Wall will never fall." In the millennium-long era of cold weapons, the Great Wall most of the time prevented the invaders from cavalry. The backward China couldn't be defended either, so the British, French, and Eight-Power Allied Forces...all attacked in, burned, killed, looted, and destroyed the former glory and glory.

The Old Summer Palace and the Summer Palace were the victims of that tragedy.


This part will take you around the Old Summer Palace and the Summer Palace.

The Old Summer Palace is a royal garden in the Qing Dynasty. It was once known as the "garden within a garden" and "the model of all gardening arts". However, this garden within a garden is a dilapidated scene in our impression. , if you have no impression of the Old Summer Palace, go to the Internet to search for information, and the following dilapidated and dilapidated scene appears the most.

Everyone knows that this is the evil result of modern imperialist aggression against China.

In 1860, the last year of the Second Opium War, the British and French allied forces invaded Beijing, broke into the Old Summer Palace and the Summer Palace, looted cultural relics, burned buildings, and destroyed a large number of precious cultural relics and buildings in the sea of ​​fire.

In 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded China and carried out several days of burning, killing and looting in Beijing. The Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace were destroyed again, and the cultural relics were almost looted. Ruins.

Today's Old Summer Palace can almost be called a relic. Except for a few sporadic pavilions and bridges built later, the only thing worth seeing in the garden is the collapsed stones - the ruins of the Western Building.

The site of Xiyang Building is located in the northeast corner of the Old Summer Palace. It is the first imitation of a European-style garden in China. It became the symbol of Yuanmingyuan.

Xiongqiqu was built in the 16th year of Qianlong (1751), and consists of Xiongqiqu Building, fountain group and water supply building. The main building is in the shape of a semicircle, and there is an octagonal hall for playing music at the end of the apartment platform. This is the first European-style water method hall in the Yuanmingyuan.

The bird cage was built in the twenty-fourth year of Qianlong (1759). It is a Western gate leading to the eastern garden, and it is used to cage and display peacocks and other birds. To the east is the Western archway with a semi-circular belt, carved with exquisite brass flower doors, and the rock sparrow cage is decorated with five-color glazed components, which complement the stone building.

Located on the north side of Harmonious Interest, Huanghuazhen is a garden modeled after a European labyrinth. The phalanx of the Yellow Flower Array is a north-south rectangle, with gates on all sides, and in the center of the array is a high platform with a round base and eight directions Western-style pavilion, implying "the sky is round and the earth is round". According to records, on the night of the Mid-Autumn Festival on August 15th, the emperor will hold a lantern party here. What we see now are all the array walls and European-style garden pavilions restored on the original site in 1987 and 1989.

(the pavilion in the center of the Yellow Flower Array)

The Outer View is located on the east side of the bird cage. It is a Western-style building with two floors and three rooms. According to records, the Outer View was converted into a mosque by Qianlong at that time, where Concubine Rong (Xiang Fei) worshiped. There are two Islamic stone tablets placed inside the temple. .

Haiyan Hall is the largest garden landscape in the Xiyanglou Scenic Area. It was built in the 24th year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1759). The main building of Haiyan Hall faces west. A large fountain, on the left and right of the pool, there are bronze statues of the twelve zodiac animals with human bodies and animal heads arranged in the shape of a horoscope. According to the order of the twelve hours of the ancient Chinese timekeeping method, each of them sprays water from their mouths for an hour in turn. At noon, all the zodiac signs spray water together, repeating the cycle. Commonly known as "water clock".

The bronze heads of the twelve zodiac fountains in Haiyantang were looted during the imperialist invasion, and three of them are kept in France and Taiwan. The heads of the ox, tiger, monkey and pig are now in the Beijing Poly Art Museum.

Guanshuifa is located opposite Dashuifa, where the emperors of the Qing Dynasty watched the fountain of Dashuifa. There is a throne on the stone platform in the middle of the water watching method, and behind it is a large stone screen made of five stone carvings side by side. They are respectively carved with patterns of Western military flags, armor, swords, and guns. There is a baroque western gate on the outside. The throne of Guanshuifa is specially designed to face south and north, which is also a special emperor's throne in ancient Chinese history.

Yuanying Guan was built in the forty-eighth year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1783). It is located on a high platform north of Dashuifa. The main body is a Western bell tower style hall. The overall building is made of high-quality white marble. Once lived in this garden. After the fifty-eighth year of Qianlong (1793), the birthday gift given to the emperor by King George III of England - the celestial body movement instrument was once displayed here.

Finally, let me introduce the iconic Dashuifa of Yuanmingyuan: Dashuifa is a garden landscape with fountains as the main body, surrounded by curved stone steps on the left and right. The main building is a giant stone niche. It forms a seven-level water curtain, spraying water layer by layer. There are rockfishes on the bank and in the pool respectively. The water on the bank flows out from the mouth of the "upper fish" and enters the mouth of the "lower fish". There is a copper sika deer in the center of the pool, which sprays out eight water jets from its antlers, and ten copper dogs are scattered on both sides, spraying water from their mouths directly on the deer. There is a large western-style square water spray tower in the left and right fronts of Dashuifa, with a total of 13 levels. Water waterfalls are sprayed from the top of the tower. There are 44 large and small copper pipes spraying water together around the tower, which is very spectacular.

After reading the above introduction, I believe that it has aroused everyone's longing for the original scenery of the Western Building. Those exquisite fountains and elegant buildings will make people amazed today, even from the remaining ruins. Peek into the past.

However, this kind of elegance was not very eye-catching in the huge Yuanmingyuan at that time.

The area occupied by the Western Building is only 1.5% of the total area of ​​the Old Summer Palace, and it is located in the remote northeast corner. It is really the "suburb" of the Old Summer Palace. The buildings in the "suburb" are so beautiful, so you can imagine how beautiful the "center" is. And know.

Today, the remains of the Western Building have become the symbol of the Old Summer Palace, and more and more beautiful buildings in the garden have long since disappeared in the long river of history and can no longer be restored. Walking in the Old Summer Palace, you can only see patches of open grass and rivers. Almost every open space has a glorious history. The tour guide pointed to the air and said: This was once the place where the royal family worshiped Buddha, this was where the princes studied, and this was once the A place where nobles appreciate lotuses...

The Old Summer Palace is divided into three major areas: the Changchun Garden, the Qichun Garden and the Old Summer Palace. Except for the small Western-style buildings, most of the garden landscapes are pavilions and pavilions. There are countless lakes, various restaurants, restaurants, houses, halls, etc., but now they are just names on the map. Most of the stone Western-style buildings collapsed, but the wooden pavilions were reduced to ashes in the sea of ​​fire.

(The Hanjing Hall located in the Changchun Garden was once the place where Qianlong cultivated himself after returning to power)

The most vibrant things in the Old Summer Palace today are the wild ducks, red fish and black swans in the lake...

Not far to the west of the Old Summer Palace is the Summer Palace.

Compared with the Old Summer Palace, the Summer Palace was much luckier. After being destroyed by the British and French allied forces, the Qing government rebuilt the Summer Palace, which was less damaged by fire, so that most of the buildings remained.

The Summer Palace was first built in 1750. It was formerly known as Qingyi Garden. It is the most complete royal garden in ancient my country. It consists of Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake. It is famous for its precious cultural relics and various palaces.

for example:

The birthday stone seen after entering the Renshou Gate was moved from the Mergen Garden (in today's Peking University) when the Summer Palace was rebuilt in the twelfth year of Guangxu (1886). birthday star.

Behind the Shouxing Stone is the Hall of Renshou, which is the place where Cixi and Guangxu governed the court, received congratulations and received foreign envoys when they lived in the garden.

Yiyun Pavilion was built in the fifteenth year of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty (1750). After Guangxu rebuilt it, it became the residence of Empress Yehenala in the garden.

Yulan Hall was the bedroom of Emperor Guangxu when he lived in the garden, and it was also the place where he reviewed memorials and handled government affairs. On September 16, 1898, Guangxu summoned Yuan Shikai, who held military power, here, hoping that Yuan would sponsor the reform. After the failure of the Reform Movement of 1898, Emperor Guangxu was imprisoned here.

There are six Chengguan buildings in the Summer Palace, the largest of which is the Wenchang Pavilion shown in the picture below, which is dedicated to the emperor Wenchang and the fairy boy.

There is also a garden within a garden in the Summer Palace, the Harmony Garden, which was built in the 16th year of Qianlong (1751) after the Jichang Garden in Wuxi Huishan, a famous garden in the south of the Yangtze River. There are several acres of square ponds in the garden. There are buildings, pavilions, halls, houses, bridges, pavilions and other garden buildings along the ponds. They are connected by hundreds of corridors with three steps, one return and five steps. .

Jingfu Pavilion on Longevity Hill is the place where Empress Dowager Cixi watched the moon and rain, and also received foreign envoys here. In February 1942, negotiations on the peaceful liberation of Peking were held here.

There is also a poetic small hall on Longevity Hill, named "Yi Chi Yun Zai", the name comes from a poem in Du Fu's "Jiangting": "Water flows without competition, and clouds care too late."

The most eye-catching building in the Summer Palace is the towering Foxiang Pavilion on the Longevity Hill. It stands on a 20-meter-high stone platform and is majestic. It is the composition center of the whole garden.

Inside the pavilion is enshrined the bronze-cast Avalokitesvara of Thousand Hands made in the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, which is beautiful, solemn and shining.

Climb to the Foxiang Pavilion, overlooking the panoramic view of Kunming Lake.

From the foot of the mountain to the top of the mountain, there are "Yunhui Yuyu" archway, Cloud Dispelling Hall, Dehui Hall, Wisdom Sea and other buildings, which together form the main building of Longevity Hill.

Paiyun Hall is the place where Guangxu celebrated Empress Dowager Cixi's birthday, and the birthday gifts presented by princes and ministers are displayed in the hall.

(The Sea of ​​Wisdom at the top of the mountain)

Coming down from Longevity Hill, strolling along Kunming Lake, the scenery in the lake is very beautiful, and the buildings on the shore are still beautiful.

The Oriole Listening Hall by the lake was originally built by Qianlong for his mother to watch operas. The ancients often used the sound of orioles as a metaphor for beautiful music, so it was named "Oriole Listening Hall". Empress Dowager Cixi also often watched plays here. Today, Tingli Restaurant has become a restaurant specializing in court dishes, and has received hundreds of heads of state. It is a famous court restaurant in China.

Another famous landscape in Kunming Lake is Qingyan Boat, which was built in the 20th year of Qianlong (1755) and named after the meaning of "Heqing Haiyan".

There is also a Suzhou Street in the all-encompassing Summer Palace, which is located in the center of Houhu Lake. The commercial street is built on both sides of the water flow, recreating the prosperity of the Jiangnan water town.

The most conspicuous building beside Kunming Lake is the Langru Pavilion, covering an area of ​​more than 130 square meters. It is the largest pavilion-style building in ancient China. There are poems made by Emperor Qianlong and excerpts of classical masterpieces on the plaques hanging in the pavilion.

On the side of the gallery is the Seventeen-Arch Bridge, which connects the East Causeway and the small island in the lake—Nanhu Island. It is the longest existing bridge in the royal gardens of our country. There are more than 500 carved pillars of different shapes on the bridge. The famous stone lion is a masterpiece of stone carving art in Qing Dynasty.

After crossing the Seventeen-Arch Bridge, we came to Nanhu Island, which is the island in the middle of the lake in front of Kunming Lake, corresponding to Longevity Mountain. There are Hanxu Hall, Jianyuan Hall, Yuebo Tower and other buildings on the island.

Hanxu Hall is an excellent place for emperors and empresses to appreciate the moon in summer and autumn. Qianlong once inspected the naval drills of the Xiangshan Jianrui Camp here, and Cixi once inspected the drills of the Naval Academy here.

It was evening after visiting the Summer Palace, and two black swans were swimming on the sparkling water, the picture was warm and romantic.

Forbidden City

If it is the first time to visit Beijing, and the time is limited, and you can only visit one scenic spot, then I think most people will choose the Forbidden City.

As the royal palaces of the last two feudal dynasties in China, the Forbidden City is a master of ancient Chinese architectural culture. Like the Kremlin in Russia and the Palace of Versailles in France, it is the essence of a country's traditional culture.

The Forbidden City is also the largest museum of ancient culture and art in China, with a collection of more than one million precious cultural relics, accounting for one-sixth of the total number of cultural relics in the country. It is a priceless historical witness of Chinese cultural relics in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

Friends who have been to the Forbidden City know that the Forbidden City is very large. There are more than 70 palaces, large and small, and more than 9,000 houses. Therefore, in this part, I will introduce important buildings to you.

During the epidemic, you need to enter the Forbidden City from Donghua Gate. Donghua Gate is the east gate of the Forbidden City. It was built in the eighteenth year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty (1420). Row.

Enter the Forbidden City and come to the central axis, and the south side is the Meridian Gate.

The Meridian Gate was first built in the eighteenth year of Yongle (1420) in the Ming Dynasty. It is the main gate of the Forbidden City. The Meridian Gate is majestic, like surrounded by three mountains, with five peaks protruding, majestic and majestic, commonly known as "Wufeng Tower".

On the north side of the central axis, you can see the white stone bridge and the yellow palace.

There are five stone bridges called "Neijinshui Bridge" built in the early Ming Dynasty, where the Neijinshui River flows. The one in the middle is the Yulu Bridge, which is exclusively for the emperor to pass. On both sides of the bridge are white marble railings, and the head of the Wangzhu is carved with cloud and dragon patterns. It is the first of the five bridges. The length and width of the bridges on both sides decrease in turn, and the capitals of the pillars are decorated with twenty-four qi patterns, which are the bridges for princes, ministers, civil and military officials, etc.

After passing the Neijinshui Bridge, you will come to the Hall of Supreme Harmony, one of the three halls.

The Hall of Supreme Harmony, also known as the "Golden Luan Hall", was built in the 18th year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty (1420), imitating the Fengtian Hall of the Forbidden City in Nanjing. It is the largest wooden structure hall in China.

Many people think that the Hall of Supreme Harmony is used to go to court, but it is not the case. The Hall of Supreme Harmony is generally used for holding important ceremonies. The places where the Ming and Qing emperors went to court were mainly Taihe Gate, Qianqing Gate, Qianqing Palace and Yangxin Hall (in the late Qing Dynasty, they listened to politics behind a curtain). The 24 emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties held grand ceremonies in the Hall of Supreme Harmony, such as the emperor's ascension to the throne, the emperor's wedding, the appointment of a queen, and the appointment of generals. In addition, the three major festivals of Longevity Festival, New Year's Day, and Winter Solstice are held here. Congratulations to officials and banquets to princes and ministers.

The plaque in the Hall of Supreme Harmony is the plaque of "Jianji Suiyou", which is the imperial pen of Emperor Qianlong (the existing plaque is a replica, and the original was replaced and lost when Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor).

There are stone sundials and Jialiang in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, which represent the supreme power and the determination of weights and measures to give time to all people in the world, and the unity of the world.

(Jialiang: ancient standard measuring device)

(Sundial: Ancient Timekeeper)

Behind the Hall of Supreme Harmony are the Hall of Zhonghe and the Hall of Preserving Harmony.

The Hall of Central Harmony is the place where the Yellow Emperor received congratulations from officials in charge of ceremonies before attending the grand ceremony. "Neutralization" comes from "Book of Rites", which means to be impartial and appropriate in everything. On the throne in the Hall of Zhonghe, the plaque "Yun Zhijue Zhong" written by Emperor Qianlong hangs, implying that the country can be governed only by practicing the way of Zhongzheng.

The Hall of Preserving Harmony was called the "Jianji Hall" in the Ming Dynasty, and it was the place where the emperors of the Ming Dynasty changed their clothes before the grand ceremony. In the second year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1645), it was renamed Baohe Hall. "Baohe" comes from "Book of Changes", which means to keep everything in harmony. Every New Year's Eve, the emperor of the Qing Dynasty entertained the princes and ministers of ethnic minorities here. In the fifty-fourth year of Qianlong (1789), it became a fixed place for the "palace examination".

The above are the three main halls of the Forbidden City. The Palace of Preserving Harmony passes through the Qianqing Gate and arrives at the last three palaces of the Forbidden City, headed by the Qianqing Palace.

(dry cleaning door)

From the Yongle period of the Ming Dynasty to the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, the Qianqing Palace has always been the palace where the Yellow Emperor handled government affairs and lived. Later, Emperor Yongzheng moved the sleeping palace from Qianqing Palace to the apse of Yangxin Hall, and the handling of government affairs was also moved to Yangxin Hall, but Qianlong was still handling government affairs in Qianqing Palace. The Qianqing Palace is also the place where the Yellow Emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties died, to show their "end of life".

Behind the "Upright and Bright" plaque in the Qianqing Palace is the place where the secret storage system established by Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty was stored. After verification, the prince appointed in secret ascended the throne.

After the Qianqing Palace is the Jiaotai Palace, the third palace of the Housan Palace.

"Jiaotai" comes from "Book of Changes", which means the intersection of heaven and earth, and the harmony of yin and yang, so Jiaotai Hall is located between Qianqing Palace (Heaven) and Kunning Palace (Earth).

There is a throne in the middle of the Jiaotai Hall. Above the throne is a plaque of "Wuwei" copied by Emperor Kangxi's imperial pen written by Emperor Qianlong, and a screen of "Jiaotai Hall Inscription" made by Emperor Qianlong. The emperors of the Qing Dynasty once again received court congratulations on the three major festivals of Qianqiu (Empress’s birthday), New Year’s Day, and Winter Solstice. In the thirteenth year of Qianlong (1748), Emperor Qianlong deposited the twenty-five seals symbolizing imperial power here.

After the Jiaotai Hall is the Kunning Palace. Kunning Palace is the sleeping palace of the empress of the Ming Dynasty. Kunning Palace and Qianqing Palace are the emperor's and empress' palaces in the traditional sense respectively. Kunning Palace was first built in the 18th year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty. Today's Kunning Palace was rebuilt in imitation of Qingning Palace in Shengjing (Shenyang) in the 12th year of Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty (1655). pocket room. Kangxi, Tongzhi, Guangxu and Puyi all got married here.

In addition to the three major halls and the rear three palaces on the central axis, there are also buildings on the left and right sides where the concubines and princes live, such as the east six palaces, the west six palaces, and the imperial garden. You can only feel the size of the Forbidden City when you shuttle between the east and west six palaces. , One courtyard sets another courtyard, making people dazzled and dizzying. The same red walls and yellow tiles, similar rooms, it is easy to get lost, and often wonder: Have you entered this courtyard just now?

Among these countless courtyards, there are also distinctions of high and low status. For example, the Compassionate Palace is more magnificent. In the Ming Dynasty, it was the residence of the imperial concubine. The residence of the Empress Dowager and the Empress Dowager.

The Shoukang Palace not far from the Cining Palace is also a magnificent palace. It was built in the thirteenth year of Yongzheng (1735) by Emperor Qianlong for his biological mother, Empress Dowager Chongqing. After the death of the Empress Dowager Chongqing, Emperor Qianlong enshrined a special blond pagoda here in memory of her mother.

Located on the north side of the Forbidden City, the Royal Garden is exquisite and magnificent. The green pines, cypresses and bamboos in the garden are dotted with rocks, forming an evergreen garden landscape. Pavilions and pavilions are spread among the shaded green trees, reflecting the The idea of ​​the unity of man and nature.

The history and culture of the Forbidden City are really rich. Here are only a few main buildings, other buildings are not involved, and the precious cultural relics are not mentioned. Interested friends can go to visit in person. Let’s go Visit the Temple of Heaven.

temple of heaven

The Temple of Heaven is a complex of sacrificial buildings for the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties to worship the sky and pray for the valley. It is one of the highest-level and most complete altar and temple complexes in ancient China.

The Chinese custom of worshiping the sky first appeared in the period of Emperor Yao. "Historical Records" records: "Nai ordered Xihe, who looks like the sky, and the calendar resembles the sun, the moon and the stars, and respects the time of people." Archaeological discovery of the sacrificial sites in my country in the Neolithic Age There are more than thirty places. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, the worship of heaven and earth in the suburbs became an important national ritual and was recorded in "Zhou Li". Since then, all dynasties have formulated strict rituals for offering sacrifices to heaven, all of which are derived from "Zhou Li".

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the etiquette of offering sacrifices to heaven was highly valued by the rulers. From the 18th year of Yongle Emperor Yongle held the first ceremony of worshiping heaven and earth at the Temple of Heaven to the last ceremony of offering sacrifices to heaven at the Temple of Heaven in the 13th year of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty. There were 22 emperors in total. A grand sacrifice ceremony was held at the Temple of Heaven. In addition to sacrificing to heaven and earth, when encountering major national events such as natural disasters and quelling rebellions, the emperor would also personally offer sacrifices or send officials to perform sacrifices.

The Temple of Heaven includes two altars, the Circular Mound and the Prayer Valley Altar. The Circular Mound Altar is in the south, and the Prayer Valley Altar is in the north. There are two altar walls, forming an inner and outer altar. There are mainly buildings such as the Circular Mound Altar and the Imperial Vault of Heaven in the Circular Mound Altar, and the main buildings in the Prayer Valley Altar are the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the Hall of Emperor Qian, and the Gate of Prayer for Good Harvests.

After entering from the north gate, the first thing you come to is the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests. The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests was built in the 18th year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty. It was originally named "Great Sacrifice Hall" and was used to worship heaven and earth together. In the 24th year of Jiajing period in the Qing Dynasty, it was changed into a round hall with triple eaves. The roof of the hall was covered with three-color glazed glazes in upper green, middle yellow, and lower green, implying heaven, earth, and all things, and it was renamed "Daxiang Hall". In the 16th year of Qianlong's reign in the Qing Dynasty, the three-color tiles were changed to a unified blue tile and golden roof, named "Prayer Hall", which is a special building for praying for the valley in the first month. The internal openings of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests also imply the four seasons, December, the twelve hours and the stars of the week. It is the only surviving example of ancient Mingtang-style buildings.

Another important building of the Praying Valley Altar is the Huanggan Hall, which can be reached from the Hall of Praying for Good Harvests through a glazed gate. The Huanggan Hall is a temple dedicated to the God of the Emperor and the gods of the emperor's ancestors and ancestors.

The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests goes south to the Whispering Wall, which is a circular wall. The wall is hard and smooth, which can reflect sound waves very well. Because of the precise curvature of the circumference, sound waves can be continuously reflected along the inner surface of the wall and propagate forward. Individuals are separated under the echo wall behind the east and west halls, and they talk softly, and both parties can clearly hear each other's voice, which is very interesting.

The building in the center of the Echo Wall is the Emperor Vault, built in the ninth year of Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty (1530). The imperial dome is covered with blue tiles and a golden roof, which is exquisite and solemn. The ceiling caisson in the hall is a golden dragon caisson with a green tone, and the center is a golden dragon pattern, which is a masterpiece of ancient architecture.

Further south of the Echo Wall is the Circular Mound, which was built in the ninth year of Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty (1530). Because the ceremony of offering sacrifices to heaven is held on the platform every winter solstice, it is also called "Tiantai". The number of stone steps to the altar, platform stones and stone slabs on each floor of Circular Mound are in multiples of nine and nine, in response to the nine heavens, emphasizing the supremacy of heaven.

The stone slab in the center of the upper platform of the Circular Mound is called "Tianxin Stone". Nine stone slabs are built on the outer ring, and eighteen stone slabs are built on the outer circle. After that, nine stone slabs will be added in turn until ninety-nine and eighty-one, implying the nine heavens. When a person stands on the Tianxin Stone and speaks, his voice is very thick and loud.

There is also a group of seven-star stones in Tiantan Park, which are seven giant town stones placed in the southeast of Daxiang Hall during the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty. They are engraved with mountain-shaped patterns, implying the seven peaks of Mount Tai. After the Manchus entered the Central Plains, in order to show that the Manchus were also a member of China, Emperor Qianlong ordered to add a stone to the northeast, which meant that China was one family and the country was unified.

In the Temple of Heaven, you can not only understand the ancient rituals of offering sacrifices to heaven, but also appreciate the majestic royal sacrificial buildings. The garden is covered with green grass, pines and cypresses, red walls and green tiles, and the scenery is also very beautiful. It is not open or closed, and there are tourists walking and enjoying the scenery in the park.


The Forbidden City and the Temple of Heaven are prominent representatives of Beijing as an imperial city, while hutongs are the symbols of Beijing as an old city. The most famous alley in Beijing is Nanluoguxiang.

Nanluoguxiang is located in the Jiaodaokou area on the east side of the central axis of Beijing. It starts from Gulou East Street in the north and reaches Ping'an Street in the south. It was built in the Yuan Dynasty and has a history of more than 740 years. It is one of the oldest hutongs in Beijing.

At first, because of its high terrain in the middle and low in the north and south, like a hunchback, it was named "Humppot Lane". In the Qing Dynasty, according to the "Complete Map of the Capital" drawn in the fifteenth year of Qianlong's reign, it was renamed "Nanluoguxiang".

Nanluoguxiang is the street with the most old Beijing style. Along the main street, you can meet many distinctive hutongs—Maoer Hutong, Yuer Hutong...even the names have a strong Beijing flavor .

(Maoer Alley)

Nanluoguxiang and its surrounding areas used to be the center of the capital city of the Yuan Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was the gathering place for high-ranking officials and dignitaries, and there were countless palaces and palaces. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the prosperity of Nanluoguxiang also gradually ended, but there are still various mansions and colorful houses in the hutong, which are thick and profound.

In addition to the taste of old Beijing, there are also many interesting fashion shops here, such as "Elsewhere", "Meeting Love at the Corner", "The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter", "Ghost Smell"... light Listening to the name of the store makes people look forward to it. Tradition and fashion collide passionately here, producing a fascinating romance and leisurely.

Not far from Nanluoguxiang is Houhai, which can be reached on foot. On the way, it passes another famous alley in Beijing - Yandai Xiejie. It is full of shops dealing in smoking sets, antiques, calligraphy and painting, stationery and snacks. It is a commercial atmosphere. A combination of culture and charm.

Houhai is an integral part of Shichahai. This is a huge artificial lake surrounded by various bars. As night fell and the lights came on, the trails by the lake became bustling. There were pedestrians walking and enjoying the coolness under the green shade, and the bar was full of feasting and feasting. This place is not as noisy as Sanlitun, but it has more tranquility and art.

Feng Tang mentioned in "Things You Can Meet But Can't Seek", "There are courtyards with trees in Houhai". However, there are so many trees in Houhai and so many courtyard houses around, why can't you meet them...

the bird's nest

After the 2008 Olympic Games, the Bird's Nest and the Water Cube became new landmarks in Beijing. In the Olympic Park where the Bird's Nest and Water Cube are located, there are many impressive buildings and sculptures, let's take a look together.

(Auspicious Cloud Torch of Beijing Olympic Games)

The "Bird's Nest" is the main stadium of the Beijing Olympic Games and will serve as the venue for the ice events of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics. It is one of the landmark buildings of the Beijing Olympic Games. The Bird's Nest was designed by Herzog & de Meuron, winners of the Pritzker Prize in 2001, in cooperation with Chinese architects. Such a "cradle" for nurturing and caring for life, entrusts mankind's hope for the future.

(Bird's Nest at night)

The Water Cube is the National Aquatics Center, located opposite the Bird's Nest. It is the main swimming pool of the Beijing Olympic Games and one of the landmark buildings of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. In the 2022 Winter Olympics, the Water Cube will be transformed into the "Ice Cube" as a venue for curling events. The Water Cube and the Bird's Nest have a circle on one side, which embodies the ideas of "a round sky and a round place" and "a square without rules" in traditional Chinese culture.

There is a sunken garden in the Olympic Park, in which there are shopping centers and some antique house buildings, full of Chinese elements, showing the cultural heritage of history and modernity.

(Tang people playing polo)

(strange modern sculpture)

There are also two towering buildings in the park that are very eye-catching, one is the Linglong Tower (Olympic Multifunctional Studio Tower) and the other is the Sightseeing Tower.

The Linglong Tower is 132 meters high and is located in the middle of the Olympic Park. Its design is light, exquisite and transparent. When it was completed, its main function was TV broadcasting. Now it shows the countdown to the opening of the Winter Olympics.

The sightseeing tower is located outside the south gate of the Olympic Park, with a height of 246.8 meters. It is called "big nail" by netizens because of its slender shape. The sightseeing tower is composed of 5 independent towers with different heights and well-proportioned arrangements. The basic shape of the tower is the five-ring pattern from low to high. Visitors can take the elevator to the top of the tower and have a panoramic view of the entire Olympic Park.

From the park and 798 in the previous article to today's Great Wall, Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, and Bird's Nest, the most well-known places of interest in Beijing, the imperial capital, are shared with you. In the next article, we will visit Shanghai, the magical city. It is also a mega city. What are the different charms of Shanghai?