CCTV reported that from January 6 to April 7, 2019 (the first day of the twelfth lunar month to the third day of March in the lunar calendar), the Palace Museum held the exhibition "Celebrating the New Year in the Forbidden City" at the Meridian Gate and East and West Yanchi Buildings, exhibiting the items and customs of the royal New Year. Many cultural relics are It is the first time to meet the public. I just happened to be in Beijing for a meeting. Wouldn't it be fun to just go and enjoy the atmosphere of the Royal New Year's Eve!

I booked tickets for the Forbidden City online, and tickets for those over 60 years old are half priced at 20 yuan. There is no need to pick up a ticket to enter the door, just swipe your ID card.

Enter the Forbidden City from Tiananmen Square, enter the Forbidden City, and climb the morning gate from the west along the steps of the Meridian Gate. At the entrance, there is a royal New Year scene, and a welcome banner of "Celebrating the New Year in the Forbidden City" is hung. .

The West Swallow Wing Building exhibits items for the royal New Year, such as Spring Festival couplets, door gods, blessing characters, palace lanterns, decorations, pendants, etc.

The Spring Festival couplets evolved from the ancient peach charms. Legend has it that the two brothers Shentu and Yulei guarding the peach tree are the gods who guard the gate of ghosts and punish evil spirits who harm people. Therefore, people hung two peach wood boards at the door of the house, and wrote "Shen Tu" and "Yu Lei" to drive away ghosts. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Meng Chang (chang), the monarch of Later Shu, wrote "New Year's Nayuqing" and "Festive Festival Changchun" on peach charms, which became the first Spring Festival couplets recorded in literature, and have been used since then. The left and right positions of the upper and lower couplets of the Spring Festival couplets depend on the direction of the horizontal script. If the horizontal script is read from right to left, the upper couplet is on the left and the lower couplet is on the right. vice versa.

The Spring Festival couplets in the picture below are Qianlong's imperial pens.

The picture below is the Hall of Mental Cultivation, where the Spring Festival couplets were originally posted.

The origin of door gods is also related to the legends of Shentu and Yulei. At the end of the Han Dynasty, there was a custom of painting the images of the two gods on the left and right sides of the door at the end of the year. Later, the door gods of generals, gods blessed by heavenly officials, door gods of boys, fairy aunts, and Fupan door gods gradually evolved. Among them, influenced by folk stories, Qin Qiong and Yu Chigong are the most common door gods of generals. The door gods of generals can drive away evil spirits and guard houses, and the images of door gods such as heaven officials blessing door gods pay more attention to the meaning of praying for blessings and auspiciousness.

The picture below shows the gate god of the general.

The picture below shows the heavenly official blessing the door god.

In addition to pasting Spring Festival couplets and door gods, there is also the custom of pasting spring strips. Chuntiao is an auspicious word written on long strips of paper. The number of characters is variable. Its function is similar to Spring Festival couplets, but they can be posted anywhere without pairing. The spring strips of "One Year Kangtai" and "Yingxiang" shown in the two pictures below are Yongzheng imperial pens.

Like the folks, the royal family also has to post "Fu" during the New Year. The emperor will write the word "Fu". The picture below shows the "Fu" written by five emperors. , the middle right is the book of Jiaqing, and the lower right is the book of Daoguang. The five "Fu" are very similar, it seems that the emperor's calligrapher came from the same school.

During the Chinese New Year, the royal family will display many decorations that are usually collected, and these decorations have the meaning of peace and auspiciousness. For example, elephant means "Taiping has an elephant"; bergamot is a homonym for "Fushou" and has a light fragrance; Sanyang is a homonym for "Sanyang", which means "Sanyang Kaitai"; Sui is a homonym for "Sui", and quail is a homophony for "An" grain ear Together with quail, it means "every year is safe"; the "Buddha" in bergamot is homonymous to "Fu", and peaches symbolize "shou". The many seeds of pomegranate are a metaphor for "many children", and when combined together, it means "San Duo of Fushou"; the combination of lily, persimmon, and ruyi means "everything goes well". Chinese people express their wishes for a better life in these ways.

The picture below is an orchid decoration made of jewelry. The green leaves of the orchid are made of dyed ivory.

The picture below is a hanging screen of the Sui Dynasty, with paper-cuts pasted on the top of the hanging screen, which is called "hanging money".

Many palace lanterns are exhibited in the Xiyan Wing Tower. During the Qing Dynasty, two longevity lanterns and two sky lanterns were erected under Majesty Dan in the Qianqing Palace during the New Year. The height of the longevity lanterns and the sky lanterns are both more than ten meters, which can be called giant palace lanterns. Now there is a stone-carved longevity lamp holder on Danbi of the Qianqing Palace, and a stone-carved sky lamp holder below. Since we went to visit just after the opening, the imitated giant longevity lamps and sky lanterns have not yet been hung out, only models have been seen. It seems that "you can't eat hot tofu in a hurry" is really correct.

In addition, on the 23rd day of the twelfth lunar month, the Qing Palace offered sacrifices to stoves in Kunning Palace. Sacrificing to the stove is to use sacrifices to send the Stove Lord to heaven. The Stove Lord is called "East Cook Commanding the Nine Emperors Kitchen King" and is regarded as the protector of the family. Legend has it that on the day of offering sacrifices to the stove, the Stove Lord will ascend to heaven to report the good and evil deeds of his family to the Jade Emperor, so as to determine rewards and punishments for the coming year. On New Year's Eve, the Stove Lord returned to the world.

The picture below shows the tablet of the Stove Lord.

The picture below shows the palace lantern and Daji bottle.

On the Meridian Gate are the rituals and customs of the Royal New Year, including New Year's dinner, clothing, seals, open windows, red envelopes, court music, etc.

The first thing in the royal New Year's etiquette is to perform filial piety and worship ancestors. It is the practice of all dynasties to rule the world with filial piety.

The picture below shows Kangxi's memorial tablet.

The picture below shows the tablet of Qianlong.

All sacrifices must be fasted in advance to show piety and solemnity. Offering sacrifices to Taimiao is the highest level of sacrifice - Taiji, where ancestor tablets are enshrined. Before Taiji, the emperor had to fast for three days. During the fasting period, the emperor ignored punishments, did not work, did not have banquets, did not listen to music, did not go to bed, did not ask for funerals, did not drink alcohol or eat meat, did not worship gods, did not sweep tombs, and had to take a bath the day before the sacrifice.

The royal family’s New Year’s Eve dinner was very grand, but it didn’t necessarily look delicious. In addition, there was no heating at the time, so the dining environment was not necessarily comfortable. This is probably one of the reasons why northerners love to eat hot pot in winter.

The Manchus call all pasta noodles and boiled dumplings "boiled dumplings". The ancients would put coins in the dumplings during the Chinese New Year, and whoever eats the dumplings wrapped with coins will win a lottery. The emperor ate dumplings with coins wrapped in them. The eunuch gave the emperor 4 dumplings, 2 of which were filled with "Tong Bao". "Tongbao" is a coin, but it is not a coin in actual circulation, but a "spending money".

The picture below shows the scene of the royal New Year's Eve dinner.

The picture below is "spending money".

"Opening the brush in the bright window" refers to the first pen-using ceremony held by the emperor in the New Year, which began with Emperor Yongzheng. At Zizheng (zero o'clock) on New Year's Day, a Jin Ou Yonggu Cup is placed at the open window of the East Nuan Pavilion of the Hall of Mental Cultivation, filled with Tusu wine; beside it is a jade candlestick, a red lacquer carved dragon cloud plate, and on the plate is a Bajixiang stove and two bronze Incense plate. The emperor drank Tusu wine first, then lit the candles on the jade candlestick himself, smoked the Wannianqing pen on the Bajixiang furnace, and wrote auspicious words to pray for the blessing of the new year.

When starting to write, the emperor first dipped in vermilion ink to write a line of auspicious words in the center of the yellow paper, and then dipped in black ink to write left and right. After writing the auspicious language note, it is sealed in a yellow box, and no one can open it.

The picture below is a copy of the Kaibi auspicious language paper in the second year of Qianlong, the sixth year of Qianlong, the sixtieth year of Qianlong and the first year of Jiaqing.

The objects at the opening ceremony all have auspicious meanings. The golden cup for drinking Tusu wine is engraved with "Jin'ou Yonggu", which means that the country will last forever. The Jin'ou Yonggu Cup was made in the Qianlong era. It is a special drinking utensil for the emperor. Qianlong personally participated in the design , a total of 4 were produced. "Jade Candle Long Tune" is engraved on the jade candlestick, implying good weather and good weather. "Wannianqing" is engraved on the pen holder, implying that the foundation of the Qing Dynasty will last forever.

Tusu wine is a medicinal wine drunk during the Spring Festival, which has the effect of warding off plague and preventing people from getting plague.

Zhonghe Shaoyue originated from ancient gala music, and was court music used in major events such as sacrifices, court meetings, and banquets (xiang, meaning entertaining guests with wine) in the Ming and Qing dynasties. On the occasion of the New Year, when the princes and ministers salute the emperor in the Hall of Supreme Harmony and the Palace of Qianqing, they all need to play.

The East Swallow Wing Tower displays the entertainment of the Royal New Year, including ice play, opera, lanterns and so on. West Swallow Wing Tower

The Spring Festival is a festival of reunion and a carnival for Chinese people. The aloof emperor will also take advantage of this festival to relax and entertain. Every Laba, the emperor came to Taiye Pool to watch the performance of soldiers flying on the ice; on New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day, the emperor came to Changyin Pavilion or Shufangzhai to enjoy the lively opera performances on the stage; Lantern Festival to enjoy lanterns and fireworks , is also very lively.

The picture below is the costume.

The picture below shows the festive candles.

The cultural and creative products of the Forbidden City have made great progress. This is the imperial decree notebook. If you stamp a commemorative stamp on the title page, you will become the emperor's family in an instant, and you will be upgraded to a relative of the emperor.

After visiting the "New Year's Eve in the Forbidden City" exhibition, come out from the East Yanchi Tower, along the Forbidden City wall to the southeast corner tower of the Forbidden City, where the section model of the corner tower is displayed, and a video about the tower building is played. The four turrets located on the four corners of the Forbidden City are the landmark buildings of the Forbidden City.

The picture below shows the kiss beast on the roof of the turret.

The figure below shows the sectional model of the turret.

The frontmost one on the ridge is the Immortal, and the image of the Immortal is a real person riding on a chicken with its head held high. There are other auspicious beasts arranged according to the rules and specifications behind the fairy, and three auspicious beasts are arranged in the turret. About the auspicious beasts, you can see the introduction to the Museum of Architecture and Art.

From the southeast corner building to the architectural art gallery on Donghua Gate. In the CCTV program "National Treasure", the three national treasures recommended by the Palace Museum are: Jin'ou Yonggu Cup, "Style Lei" and Li Bai's only surviving handwritten "Shangyang Tie". The Jin Ou Yonggu Cup was exhibited in "Celebrating the New Year in the Forbidden City", and the "Style Lei" was exhibited in the Museum of Architecture and Art.

"Style Lei" is the reputation of the Lei family who presided over the royal architectural design for 200 years in the Qing Dynasty. The Lei family designed the Old Summer Palace, Chengde Mountain Resort, the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven, the Summer Palace, the Eastern Tombs of the Qing Dynasty, and the Western Tombs of the Qing Dynasty. Heritage buildings. The architectural model made of simple materials by the Lei family is called "Lei's Tangyang". "Lei's Tangyang" is exactly the same as the modern three-dimensional space design. It can be opened, the walls can be removed, and the internal arrangement can be adjusted. "Lei's Ironing Sample" can show the exterior of the building, and you can also check the interior layout of the building. "Style Lei" solves the problems solved by modern 3D design software by means of ironing.

In addition to displaying "Lei's Hot Sample", the architectural components of the Forbidden City, the architectural characteristics of the Forbidden City, the architectural history of the Forbidden City, etc., the Architectural Art Museum also shows in detail the exquisiteness of some architectural components of the Forbidden City, such as kissing the beast on the roof, which is quite complicated and interesting. knowledge.

Kissing beast is the general term for the decoration of beasts on the roof of ancient Chinese architecture. The frontmost one on the ridge is a fairy.

The first kissing beast after the fairy is the dragon. The dragon is the embodiment of auspiciousness and majesty, the symbol of the emperor, and it combines the virtues of various animals. It is the spirit of all things and has infinite power.

The second is the phoenix, the phoenix is ​​the king of all birds, symbolizing auspiciousness and peace in the world, people's well-being, and a happy life.

The third is the lion. The lion is the king of beasts. In Buddhism, it is the guardian of the Dharma, symbolizing loyalty, bravery and majesty.

The fourth one is Tianma. Tianma travels thousands of miles a day, chasing the wind and chasing the sun, flying in the sky.

The fifth place is the hippocampus. The hippocampus can enter the sea and the abyss, turning danger into fortune. It is a loyal, brave and auspicious beast, implying that the royal power is as deep as the sea.

The sixth place is 狻猊. In ancient literature, 狻猊 is a fierce beast similar to lions. It is extremely brave and has the meaning of suppressing disasters and reducing evil.

The seventh place is Yayu, which looks like the ancient "Qiu (pronounced qiu) dragon" and a small dragon with horns. Its tail has a fish-shaped tail fin. It is a combination of fish and beast. , Xingyun for rain, is the embodiment of auspiciousness.

The eighth place is Xiezhi (pronounced xie zhi). Xiezhi is a legendary beast with a peculiar shape, resembling a dragon with a tail, and a lion with a single horn. Good at upholding justice, it is the embodiment of justice, symbolizing the integrity and selflessness of the royal family. In ancient times, there were shadow walls or sculptures of Xiezhi at the gates of many yamen, which symbolized the justice of the law.

The ninth is the fighting bull, which looks like a bull, but has the look of a dragon in scales and armor. Bullfighting is the incarnation of Qiu Chi (pronounced qiu chi, one of the nine sons of the dragon) in the legend. When it is cloudy and rainy, it forms a long winding road with clouds and mists, which can prevent disasters and prevent fires, make clouds rain, and turn bad luck into good luck.

The tenth place is Xingshi. Xingshi is a monkey-shaped beast with wings on its back and a vajra pestle in its hand. It can subdue demons and eliminate demons. The extraordinary skill of kindness. The use of Xing Shi is an isolated case, only appearing on the roof of the Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City, and it is a symbol of the supreme status of the building. The picture below shows what to do.

The picture below is the roof ridge of the Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City. There are 10 kissing beasts standing behind the immortals. Standing at the end is what to do. This is the only example in the country.

According to the rules, only odd numbers of kissing beasts arranged on the roof can be used behind the celestial beings. The number depends on the building level and the length of the roof ridge. At least one can be used, and a maximum of nine bullfighting beasts can be used.

The pictures below are kissing beasts on the roof ridges of different palaces in the Forbidden City.

From the Architecture Gallery to the recently opened Furniture Gallery. The Furniture Hall is located on the west side of the Meridian Gate and south of the Hall of Martial Arts (Painting Hall). All kinds of furniture displayed in the furniture hall are really ingenious and beautiful.

Large cabinets inlaid with shells (also known as "mother-of-pearl"), mahogany Arhat beds, and screens for calligraphy and painting.

The picture below shows the antler chair, which is made of the antlers of the large deer that were shot.

The picture below shows the leading chair, which is the chair on the signboard of the furniture hall.

The Qing Dynasty ruled the world with bows and arrows, and established the family law with the martial arts of riding and archery. Taizong Huang Taiji personally captured a big deer in the battle of Daling River, made chairs out of antlers, and kept them in Shengjing. Emperors of the Qing Dynasty imitated their ancestors and made chairs from antlers obtained by hunting. There are four antler chairs in the Forbidden City, two of which are Emperor Kangxi's antler chairs. This antler chair on display is an imperial article made by Hongli in the twenty-seventh year of Qianlong's reign with the large antlers he personally obtained.

The picture below shows the fish tank in the palace of the Qing Dynasty. It looks like an antique painting screen. Isn’t it very creative? There are several small red fish in the fish tank. Due to the cold weather, the small fish hardly move, and the gills of the fish can only be seen moving when you look closely. According to the staff, it has not been fed for several months. A small fish died a few days ago, and other small fish divided it and ate it.

The picture below shows the warehouse of the Furniture Museum, which is full of all kinds of furniture.

The Forbidden City is very large, and there are so many things open to visit now that you may not be able to finish it in a day or two. Near the closing of the Forbidden City, I hurriedly visited Shoukang Palace. Shoukang Palace is the palace where Empress Dowager Chongqing, the mother of Qianlong, lived. In addition to the palace, there are also related texts and objects for viewing.

The relationship between Qianlong and his mother, the Empress Dowager Chongqing, was very close and sincere. The Empress Dowager Chongqing always thought of her son who had worked hard for the country, and asked about his health and care. Between mother and child, regardless of military affairs or daily life, they are emotionally connected, sharing joys and worries. Emperor Qianlong was respectful and sincere to his mother, and greeted him with food. He took his mother with him several times when he went to the south of the Yangtze River.

The closing time of the Forbidden City is up, walk out of the Forbidden City from Donghua Gate. In the past, I entered the Forbidden City through the Meridian Gate and exited through the Shenwu Gate. Now all the gates of the Forbidden City are open, and I walked out of the Forbidden City through Donghua Gate for the first time.

The Forbidden City has changed a lot in the past few years. There are more and more open areas, more and more content to visit, more and more cultural and creative products, but the price of tickets has not changed much. It really serves the public.

Leaving the Forbidden City from Donghua Gate, I came across the old store of Leshi Tongrentang, where the imperial decree was embedded on the wall.

Before visiting the exhibition "Celebrating the New Year in the Forbidden City" in the Forbidden City, I visited the Capital Museum and the "Great Change" exhibition at the National Museum.

The Capital Museum is presenting an exhibition from the National Museum in Wroclaw, Poland - "Silesia in the Baroque Era". The main contents of the exhibition are paintings, sculptures, church relics, etc. Silesia is the name of a historical region in Central Europe. Most of the current Silesia region is located in southwestern Poland, and a small part is in the present-day Czech Republic and Germany. Historically, there were many regimes in Central Europe, frequent wars, and very complicated geopolitics. Silesia is rich in natural resources, making it a place where regional powers compete, leading to border changes and regime changes. From the 9th century to the 18th century, Silesia was successively ruled by the regimes of Great Moravia, Bohemia, the Kingdom of Poland, the Holy Roman Empire and Prussia, which brought multi-ethnic exchanges and cultural and artistic exchanges. fusion.

Baroque art is a typical artistic style representing European culture, which originated in Italy in the 16th century and flourished throughout the 17th century. Baroque art is a complex, extravagant and flamboyant art form. The rise of Baroque art is closely related to the Roman Catholic counter-reformation movement and the strengthening of monarchy in Western European countries. It mainly serves the strengthening of religious authority and monarchy.

Silesia's Baroque art was nearly a century later than Italy's. The Baroque period was a historical stage in which Silesia was revitalized. The cruelest war ended, Silesia’s society was stable, its economy recovered, and religious changes brought prosperity to art, which also promoted the development of the region. stability and development.

The exhibits in the "Silesia in the Baroque Era" exhibition are not the fine works of foreign Baroque art, but they represent the characteristics of the region, so you can take a look if you have time.

Baroque frame for visitors to take pictures.

The picture below shows 6 little angels playing musical instruments, and the cultural relics come from the Lubiange Monastery.

The picture below shows the Archangel Michael, and the exhibits come from the Abbey of Lubienge.

The picture below shows David in the Bible, which is the same person as Michelangelo's famous sculpture "David", but the image is very different.

The National Museum is exhibiting "The Great Change" - a large-scale exhibition celebrating the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up. Visiting the National Museum simplifies the admission process, as long as you pass the security check, you don't need to get a ticket. The security check is still strict, and the list of items that are not allowed to be brought in, such as drinking water and pens, has been added. According to the security inspectors, some visitors wrote on the exhibits with a pen, presumably to write something similar to their visit here. This bad habit of Chinese people is really deep-rooted. I understand the security check, but I despise the people who write on the exhibits.

The starting point of the rural reform - the life and death document of Xiaogang Village, the rural reform has completely solved the problem of Chinese people's food.

The picture on the left below is the document submitted to Deng Xiaoping by Liu Xiyao, then Minister of Education, on the resumption of the college entrance examination, and Deng Xiaoping gave instructions. This document should be a document that changed the fate of many people. My wife and I are the first (level 77) and second (level 78) undergraduates after the resumption of the college entrance examination. It's another look.

The picture below is the sealed official seal after the reform of the administrative approval system.

The picture below shows the furnishings of ordinary families in the early days of reform and opening up. It should be a family with better conditions, including black and white TV sets, sewing machines, electric fans, and sofas.

For our generation, many of the contents displayed have been personally experienced. We have witnessed the changes in the country in the past 40 years. Looking back on our life in those years and looking at our current life, it has really changed a lot. Without reform and opening up, China would not be where it is today. Although there are problems of one kind or another in today's society, they are all problems in progress, and each of us Chinese needs to face and solve them.

Wishing you a happy Year of the Pig with the promotional image of "Family and Harmony" of the upcoming cultural exhibition of the Year of the Pig zodiac in the Capital Museum!