The emperors of the Qing Dynasty went to the south of the Yangtze River since Kangxi, and Qianlong followed his ancestors to Hangzhou. After seeing the scenery of the West Lake, he built Qingyi Garden in imitation of the scenery and artistic conception of the West Lake. During the construction of Qingyi Garden, Lao Gan went to the south of the Yangtze River three times. Every time I go to Hangzhou, I take the "Ten Scenes of West Lake" by the court painter Dong Bangda with me, and then check in one by one according to the map. This picture is now in the collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. The name of the picture is Ten Views, but in fact there are not only ten scenes in the picture, but more than fifty scenes. Lao Gan has always liked landscape painting, and he loves it even more when he walks into the landscape of West Lake.

Hangzhou West Lake has three famous embankments, the Bai embankment has "Broken Bridge Remnant Snow"; Yanggong Embankment has "Quyuan Fenghe" and six bridges; fish", and also has six bridges. In the fourth year of Yuanyou (AD 1089) of Emperor Zhezong Zhaoxu of the Northern Song Dynasty, Su Shi was awarded the honorary title of Longtuge University Bachelor, which is equivalent to the Wenyuange University Bachelor in the Qing Dynasty, but he has no real job. This year, Su Shi became the prefect of Hangzhou again. This is the second time he has come to Hangzhou to serve. The last time was when Song Shenzong Zhao Xu (Nianxu) served as Hangzhou General Judge in the fourth year of Xining (AD 1071). Su Shi became the magistrate, but when Hangzhou was hit by a disaster, he organized the people to dredge the West Lake, and used the dug out lake mud to pile up the West Lake embankment. In order to commemorate Su Shi's deed of benefiting one party during his tenure as an official, the people called this embankment "Su Gong embankment", or Su embankment for short. Lao Gan loved Su Dage's poems the most, so he said that he wanted to imitate a Su embankment in Qingyi Garden, which meant that a good poet must build an embankment.

Among the many empresses and concubines of Qianlong, there was a woman of the Han nationality surnamed Su. After Prince Bao ascended the throne as Emperor Qianlong, he made Su Nu a concubine, and the following year she was canonized as a pure concubine. Since then, she has been promoted to the imperial concubine, and she is the only Han woman who was canonized as an imperial concubine during her lifetime in the Qianlong Dynasty. After Concubine Chun's death, Qianlong gave her the posthumous title of Concubine Chunhui, and was buried in Yuling Concubine's Garden. Before the burial, Qianlong also asked people to upgrade this imperial concubine's dormitory, adding the east and west side halls, Fangcheng Minglou and Baocheng, which are only available in the emperor's mausoleum. This specification is beyond the ancestral system, and it is the only two imperial concubine dorms in the Qing Mausoleum. Another imperial concubine's mausoleum is the double concubine's dormitory in the Jingling Mausoleum of Emperor Kangxi, which was also ordered by Qianlong because the two concubines who raised Hongli as a child were buried in it.

In the dormitory of Yuling concubine's garden, Concubine Chun was buried in the highest position in the middle of the front row, with the hall of enjoyment in front. Lao Gan also set up a monument "Chunhui Huang Guifei's Garden Bed" for this concubine's garden, which is also very out of the ordinary. Lao Gan not only likes the pure noble concubine, but also brings his successor queen Nala to visit the pure noble concubine's grave. In the 30th year of Qianlong (AD 1765), this Empress Nala was dismissed from office and investigated. After her death the following year, she was buried in the underground palace of the pure imperial concubine in the Yuling Concubine Garden. Laogan himself said that the pure noble concubine Su's "nature is gentle and respectful, and she is cautious in bowing. Since she celebrates her husband's ceremony, she is obedient and compassionate, and she should be more pampered when she tries to test the Yi Zhang." But I guess a big reason is that the pure concubine's surname is Su, she likes to eat elbows, and she has Dongpo blood. When Lao Gan went to the south of the Yangtze River, he must have investigated the Su family's family background privately, but he did not see the Su family's father recorded in the Su family's ancestral hall. But this old man really liked Brother Su, so Aiwu and Wudi took this daughter of the Su family into the house and doted on it. Fortunately, the daughter of the Su family was very competitive and was favored to the ground. This is an interlude of a story about Laogan marrying Su's daughter because of his love for Su's poems. Whether it is true or not, it has such a meaning.

The embankment built by Su Shi crosses the water surface of West Lake from north to south, and Lao Gan also built such an embankment in Qingyi Garden, which also crosses the water surface of Wengshan Pond from north to south. The Su Causeway is basically straight and very refreshing; the bank of Qingyi Garden is basically curved and very graceful. Su Causeway was built by Su Gong, so it is called Su Gong Causeway; although this dike in Qingyi Garden was built by Lao Gan, it is not called Gan Causeway. Because it is on the west side of Kunming Lake, it is named Xidi. There are six single-arch stone arch bridges on the Su Causeway, and Lao Gan also built six bridges on the West Causeway. However, the six bridges on the West Causeway are not uniform single-arch bridges, but have their own characteristics. In short, this West Causeway is better than Su Causeway because of Su Causeway.

Walk along the Su Causeway from north to south, and to the north of the causeway is the Yuewang Temple, a very important building. There is also a very important building next to the northernmost end of the West Causeway of the Summer Palace.

This sluice is very important. It is connected to the Baifuyan waterway built by Guo Shoujing in the Yuan Dynasty to divert water to irrigate the Grand Canal. When the Kunming Lake swells beyond the limit, the flood gate can be opened to release the flood to Baifu Weir. The Yuan Dynasty Baifu Weir outside the gate is now part of the Jingmi Diversion Canal, and there is a Qinglong Bridge on it. Because this gate is close to Qinglong Bridge, it is also called Qinglong Gate. Laogan called this sluice "the end of Kunming Lake", and Lu (reading the donkey) refers to the gate of the lane formed during the ancient Lifang system.

After passing the Qinglong Gate and climbing to the West Causeway, the first bridge on the West Causeway is in front of you, which is known as the northernmost Jiehu Bridge.

This bridge is the boundary between the inner and outer lakes, so it is called Jiehu Bridge.

The bridge now looks like a fairly ordinary big stone bridge, with a big bridge hole in the middle and two small bridge holes on both sides. It belongs to the stone bridge, also known as the girder bridge, and the three bridge holes are formed by erecting beams on the bridge pillars. This bridge is located in a very corner, quite remote, and can't be seen on Kunming Lake or on the side of the front and back bedrooms. Standing on this bridge, you can't see the broad water surface of Kunming Lake, only the half-wall bridge at the entrance of the back lake. Take a look on the bridge.

The middle of the bridge is very spacious, with white stone handrails on both sides and pilgrims with lotus seats, which shows that there should be a bridge pavilion on this bridge at the earliest. It must have been burned down by the British and French allied forces in the tenth year of Xianfeng (AD 1860), because it was located in a corner and was very inconspicuous, and it was not rebuilt during the Guangxu period.

Don't look at the inconspicuousness of this bridge, it is quite emotional when you come to see it in the afternoon when the sun is shining.

If the pavilion on the bridge is still there, the bridge will be even more beautiful. What was the Bridge Pavilion like then? I will put this question here first, and I will talk about it after I have finished reading the Six Bridges of the West Causeway.

When Emperor Qianlong first built the West Dike, there were willow branches around the bridge, so he called it the Willow Bridge. The Jiehu Bridge at that time was another bridge. Lao Gan once wrote a small poem for this willow bridge: "Let's take a light boat to swim and float along the river to the head of the willow bridge. The long and sunny Xie Jiaxue is like a mountain cloud visiting Dai You". The "Xie Jiaxue" mentioned in the poem is an allusion of Xie Jiayongxue, and Xie's family is the family of Xie An, the iron-blooded prime minister of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Xie An gathered his sons and daughters in the snow to sing poems. The son said that the snow was salt in the sky, and the daughter said it was the wind blowing catkins. What Xie Jia chanted about snow was the snow in the cold winter, and what Lao Gan chanted should be the first snow of that winter. "Visiting Daiyou" refers to the allusion that Wang Ziyou (Nianyou) Xuezhou, the son of Wang Xizhi in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, visited Dai Andao. Dai Andao was Dai Kui, a hermit painter in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Ziyou visited Di'an Road by boat after snowing, and returned when he didn't enter the gate. When people asked why, the king said: "I used to take advantage of my excitement to go, and I returned when I was exhausted. Why should I see Dai?" Lao Gan cited this allusion only to say that the boat is driven after the snow.

In order to reproduce the artistic conception of Hong Poetry, the Management Office of the Summer Palace has parked a Qingdao (Nian Dao) at the head of the bridge all year round. If you come under the bridge while it is snowing, you should be able to feel the feeling of Lao Gan dragging his poems. Therefore, I said at the beginning of this series of travel notes that if you want to enjoy the beauty of the Summer Palace, you must read these commentary by Lao Gan. After all, the Summer Palace Management Office set up the scenery according to these explanatory words, such as the bamboo in the courtyard of Yulan Hall and the lotus root outside the courtyard.

After crossing the Jiehu Bridge, go south along the West Causeway. In front of you is the bridge of Xidi that can be seen on Kunming Lake, which is Binfeng Bridge.

The Binfeng Bridge is somewhat similar to the Jiehu Bridge, and it also has three bridge holes, one big, two small. But they are different. The big bridge hole in the middle of the Binfeng Bridge is a beam on the bridge column, but the two small holes are on the bridge body, and the top is a coupon arch. This is a pavilion bridge. This type of bridge is common in water towns in the south. The Yudai Bridge in Fenghe, Quyuan, next to the West Lake Su Causeway in Hangzhou is a pavilion bridge, called "Jade Belt Qinghong". The pavilion on the Binfeng Bridge is a bit like the West Lake Jade Belt Bridge, but it is more royal. This bridge pavilion is a three-bay long pavilion with a double eaves roof with raised beams and gray tiles. There is a brick terrace in the middle of the roof, like a chimney. Between the eaves and pillars of the bridge pavilion, there are stool lintels, white stone railings on both sides, no handrails for Zen rods, and Xumizuo looks at the capitals of the pillars. Go up the bridge to see the interior of the bridge pavilion with a Ming-made roof.

The bridge pavilion was taken off the shelf for maintenance a few years ago, and the exterior paintings have been refreshed, while the interior remains the same. You can see the contrast between the old and new Soviet-style paintings inside and outside.

The word Binfeng comes from the "Book of Songs", in which there is an episode called "Binfeng", which contains a total of seven poems, which are the earliest pastoral poems in China. The first song in "Bin Feng" is "July", and its first sentence is the familiar "Fire in July, Clothes in September". Not far to the west of Binfeng Bridge is the "Plowing and Weaving Scenic Spot" in the Summer Palace, which is an idyllic garden. Qianlong originally titled the bridge "Sangzhu (Nianzhu)", which should be in line with the meaning of the plowing and weaving map. There were some mulberry trees planted by the bridge back then, and there are still many living ones now. When Laogan was boating beside the Sangzhu Bridge, he once recited: Planting Qixia rice to sleep idle, and reeling new silk to stop silkworms. Osmanthus chrysanthemums are singing beside the Sangzhu Bridge, how can Xicun cross the south of the Yangtze River? When the bridge was rebuilt during the Guangxu period, Cixi changed the name of the bridge to "Binfeng", which still corresponds to the picture of farming and weaving.

After passing the Binfeng Bridge, a building boat is parked on the shore of Kunming Lake.

This is a bar boat, get on the boat and go upstairs. Even if there is no small red clay stove on board, you must experience the sentiment of "brewing wine with pine flowers, frying tea with spring water".

However, don't drink too much, in that case, you will be "drowsy with alcohol and sleepy, and people thirsty for tea". Take a sip of strong tea, take another look at Longevity Hill, and don't forget to look down at the passing men and women in light boats.

If you have a chance, you must come here to appreciate Du Fu's "two orioles singing green willows, a group of egrets ascending to the blue sky. The window contains snow for thousands of years in Xiling, and the gate moors a boat thousands of miles away from Dongwu". Regrettably, when you read my short article, it is already: the building and the boat are gone with the water, and the iron gate is empty.

Tourists can only look around at the water and see the sky, and the weeping willows on the shore are dark.

Looking east from the Binfeng Bridge, it is a beautiful building with wide water; looking west, it is the lotus withered catkins on the outer lake.

When the sun is slanting to the west, it is very beautiful to watch this pavilion bridge.

Continuing to the south is the Yudai Bridge.

View from the water by boat.

This Yudai Bridge is completely different from the Yudai Bridge in Hangzhou West Lake. It is a single-hole high-arch stone bridge. The arch is tall and thin, light and straight. Although the arches of this stone arch bridge are tall and thin, its structure is actually very stable. There is a Jianbi Pavilion at the south gate of Yuanmingyuan, and there is a dilapidated single-arch stone bridge not far from the pavilion. Although dilapidated, the arch is still standing.

Stand under the arch of Yudai Bridge and look up at it.

I really like this jade belt bridge, it is like dancing in the air in vain, and it is like crescent moon dancing on the water. Not only I like him, but the old designer of Beijing Cigarette Factory also likes it. In the past, a kind of cigarette produced in their factory was called "Yudaiqiao". Those who have smoked this brand of cigarettes are now retired Beijing old men. Moreover, I guess Lao Gan also likes this bridge, because he will walk through this bridge hole when he takes a boat to go to Yuquan Mountain by water. Under this bridge, Lao Gan once sighed with emotion, "I feel sorry for myself, the water, the green mountains and the green li, how much I can relax my eyebrows when I look at it." This is purely "speaking sorrow for new words".

In the Qing Dynasty, some people walked to the West Embankment slightly drunk, and from then on they yelled, "I really want to go to Jinao when I'm drunk. I want to go to the Immortal Bridge. Let's go to the River Bridge. Why should I go up to the Jade Tower?". If you want to continue to see the other three bridges on the West Causeway, you must climb over this Yudai Bridge. No matter how afraid you are of heights, you must work hard to climb it. Fortunately, on both sides of the bridge there are white stone handrails with cloud and crane watch stigmas, and you can support the railings to go up.

Climb to the top of the bridge and sit on the ground to breathe for a while.

You will find that the railing on the top of the bridge is solid again. It turns out that Lao Gan wrote "Jade Belt Bridge" on both sides of the bridge. The original meaning of jade belt refers to the belt of an official, which is very gorgeous clothing. But Su Shi can also sing such a gorgeous Dongdong in a sad and melodious tune: "Sick bones are embarrassing, and the jade belt is surrounded, but the blunt roots are still falling into the arrow." There is also a couplet of Laogan engraved on the arch of the front bridge facing east: "Luo Dai-hen" is tiled with a bright moon mirror, and the rainbow light reflects the crystal curtain across a hundred feet. Luodai is the eyebrow pencil of the ancients. Here it refers to Xishan, and the distant mountain contains Dai. There is also a pair of couplets on the back facing west: the ground is close to the sky and the Xinghe in Yingzhou, and there are many palaces and palaces on Pengdao Island. Yingzhou is a fairy island in mythology, here it means Zaojiantang Island in the West Lake of Kunming. Pengdao is Penglai Xiandao, which means Nanhu Island on Kunming Lake. When Laogan boarded the Yudai Bridge, he once wrote a small poem: "The boats used to come and go from the river, and today they crossed the bridge at the beginning of the day. The real jade belt is surrounded by pictures, and Laozhuan Dongpo has been printed several times." In the last sentence, "Yin Laozhuan Dongpo" mentioned an allusion.

This is a story about Su Dongpo and the Great Monk Foyin of Jinshan Temple in Zhenjiang. There are many stories about Su Dongpo and Foyin. The most popular one is that Su Dongpo came to Jinshan Temple to visit Foyin and shouted "Where is the bald donkey" when he entered the door? As a result, Foyin's apprentice said "Dongpo eats grass". People say that Su Dongpo and Monk Foyin are good friends, and they are very close. It is said that when Su Dongpo passed by Jinshan Temple when he left Hangzhou to build the Su Causeway, he went to visit Foyin again, and went directly to the hall and into his room. When the two disagreed, they quarreled for one seat. Foyin said, "There is no seat here", and Su Dongpo said, "Sit on your four seats." Dongpo's four majors can refer to the four limbs of the Buddhist seal, or the four major Buddhists. Foyin saw that Dongpo was so arrogant, so he said, "I ask a question, if you can answer it, pass it on; if you can't answer it, you will lose to my belt." Su Dongpo replied, "It's up to you." Foyin asked, "The Buddha said that the four elements are all empty, so I ask you where to sit?" Su Dongpo felt that it was unreasonable, so he had to take off his belt and lose it to Foyin, which was the jade belt. Foyin also took off his cassock and gave him a gift in return.

Dongpo once recorded this incident in a poem, which contained the sad tone I mentioned above. This Dongpo belt is still in Jinshan Temple.

Standing on the top of the bridge and looking west, it is the waterway for Lao Gan to go to Yuquan Mountain by boat.

To the east, looking at the empty crossing at the edge of Tianjin, the sky is boundless and vast, and the sky is full of smoke and waves. The clouds are shining, the autumn wind is rolling, and the water is pale and blue, which is not spring.

After passing the Yudai Bridge, look back again.

Go forward and see the bridge again.

View the bridge from the water.

This is the Mirror Bridge, a single-hole stone bridge. The bridge pavilion above is an octagonal square pavilion with gray tiles and octagonal double eaves and a pointed roof. There are three ridge beasts on the vertical ridge. The ridge brake is a covered bowl on the brick octagonal terrace. On both sides of the bridge are white stone railings with hollow stone carvings, and the plain faces look at the column heads. Go into the bridge pavilion and look up.

From the outside, this bridge pavilion is almost the same as the four octagonal pavilions on the promenade, but its internal beam structure is different, which shows that there are many ways to build roofs in ancient Chinese buildings.

The colorful paintings on the inner beams of the Binfeng Bridge in front have been destroyed, but there are still quite good remains of the Soviet-style painted paintings on the inner beams of the Mirror Bridge. Take a look at this one.

This is the three stars of fortune, prosperity and longevity. The noble one in the middle is Lu Xing. As mentioned earlier, he is Emperor Wenchang, who came from Zhang Yu, a native of Shu during the Southern and Northern Dynasties.

Those who conceive a baby in Lu Xing's right hand are lucky stars. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the ancients worshiped Jupiter as a lucky star, also known as the year star. During the Tang Dynasty, there were many dwarves in Daozhou, Hunan, called dwarves, who were often paid tribute for the entertainment of the Tang emperor. It wasn't until Yangcheng became governor of Daozhou that he wrote a letter to abolish the custom of paying tribute to dwarves. The local people built temples to worship Yangcheng, and took Yangcheng as a lucky star. Taoism took shape in the Song Dynasty, and the theory of the three officials of heaven, earth and water was deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. Heaven officials bless, earth officials forgive sins, and water officials eliminate disasters. Since then, the Taoist heavenly official has become a lucky star, and its image is often pregnant with a baby, holding jade or holding a couplet.

Lu Xing's left hand is the birthday star, everyone knows it. In ancient times, the Antarctic Canopus was worshiped as the birthday star. Canopus is very bright and is the second brightest star in the sky. The brightest star is Sirius. The Antarctic canopy is common in the southern sky, but not in northern China. Because things are rare and precious, Qin Shihuang built a shrine in Xianyang after he unified China, saying that the birth of the birthday star will bring peace to the world. It is said that Liu Zhuang, Emperor Mingdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty, once held a sacrifice to the birthday star. After the ceremony, domestic old men over 70 years old were invited to have a feast, and each person was given a walking stick. This is the first time in history that an emperor held a birthday banquet, more than 1,600 years earlier than Emperor Kangxi's banquet for thousands of seniors. The image of the birthday star is to have a huge forehead, holding a fairy peach or a peach wood walking stick.

Some people say that the name of the Mirror Bridge comes from Li Bai's "Autumn Climb to the North Tower of Xietao, Xuancheng", in which there is a sentence "two waters sandwich a bright mirror, and two bridges fall on a rainbow". This is Li Bai climbing up to the North Watchtower in Xuancheng, Anhui Province to view the scenery and nostalgia. The two waters are about the Wanxi River and Shuiyang River under the Lingyang Mountain of the North Watchtower. Shuangqiao refers to the Fenghuang Bridge on the Wanxi River and the Jichuan Bridge on the Shuiyang River, both of which are stone arch bridges. Der Spiegel refers to the circle formed by the semicircular bridge openings of the two bridges and the shadows in the water. Xie Tiao was a poet in the Southern Qi Dynasty. He used to be the prefect of Xuancheng. People called him Xie Xuancheng. Xuancheng is 250 miles south of Jiangning, not far from Wuxi and Suzhou. It is unknown whether Emperor Qianlong visited Jiangnan, but he must be very familiar with Xie Tiao's poems and Li Bai's Xie Tiaolou poems. Therefore, Lao Gan certainly knows that the Liangshui and Mingjing in Li's poems do not match Kunming Lake at all, and they are not an artistic conception at all. There is no mirror bridge between two waters at all, nor are there two arch bridges like a rainbow. If it is said that among the six bridges on the West Causeway, the artistic conception of "two waters with a bright mirror" can be closed, it can only be the Yudai Bridge, not the Mirror Bridge.

Let’s take a look at what Lao Gan wrote in his poem for Jingqiao: “The ice mirror is cold and the water mirror is clear. It turned out that Lao Gan saw that the ice on both sides of the lake in winter and the level of summer were like mirror surfaces, so he named this bridge "Mirror Bridge". In the Qingyao Pavilion on the promenade, there is a plaque of "Looking down at the mirror and clearing the stream". Looking down at the mirror means looking down at your own face with the water of Kunming Lake as a mirror, and Qingliu also means the clear water of Kunming Lake. You see, Laogan is used to taking the water of Kunming Lake as a mirror, not the reflection of the bridge hole.

After crossing the mirror bridge and continuing southward, you will see the Fifth Bridge on the West Causeway.

Watch it by boat.

This is Lianqiao, a single-hole stone bridge like Mirror Bridge. But the bridge pavilions on them are different. The bridge pavilion of Lianqiao is a square pavilion with four corners, and two eaves columns are added between the north and south eaves columns. The gray tiles have double eaves at four corners and a pointed roof, and there are three ridge beasts on the vertical ridge. The ridge brake is a brick terrace with four corners. On both sides of the bridge are hollowed-out stone carved white stone balustrades, with Ruyi-patterned square pillars. Go into the bridge pavilion and look up.

The beams on the top of the columns are built on the corner trusses, and then the beams, purlins and rafters are built on top of each other to make a roof. The external Soviet-style painting is heavily oiled, and the internal painting has crumbled.

Lianqiao used to grow a lot of lotus root for the emperor's stewed pork ribs. When the lotus blooms in summer, it reminds Laogan of the scenery of "Fenghe in Quyuan" in the West Lake. He then chanted: "The scene on the right side of Lianqiao is quite different, and Lindi Xiatian is in a different area. It's the southern patrol boat, and that Gengquyuan recalls the West Lake."

But why is this bridge called "Lian"? People say that it comes from Xie Tiao's poem "Yuxia is scattered into beautiful, Chengjiang is as quiet as practice". "Lian" originally means boiled silk into silk, and later means white silk, which is also a slender and soft silk fabric. Xie Tiao wrote this poem when he was demoted from Beijing to Xuancheng and climbed to the three mountains beside the Yangtze River in the south of Jiankang City. He looked back at the capital and imagined looking at Chang'an. It is no problem to say that the Yangtze River or Bashui is as quiet as training. If Qianlong called Kunming Lake as quiet as practice, it would be almost meaningless. Kunming Lake should be as quiet as pie. I guess the "practice" mentioned by Qianlong should refer to the winding West Causeway. He used a drone to take pictures from the sky and it can be seen that "it is like practicing the West Causeway".

Going further south to Lianqiao is a broken bridge without pavilions. The past is more than a hundred years old, and the traces of the candle extinguished empty.

This bridge must have been famous in the past, and it should be the name given by Lao Gan. The structure of this bridge is the same as the previous pavilion bridge, a single-hole stone slab bridge, maybe there was a bridge pavilion on it at the earliest? Take a closer look, no, there is not enough space on this bridge to build a small pavilion. Look at the northernmost Jiehu bridge relic, there is a bridge pavilion site on it.

Sure enough, there is the "Jade Tower" that drunk people in the Qing Dynasty once saw in front of them!

In the Tang Dynasty, Liu Yuxi wrote a poem about climbing a tall building in autumn, saying: "The mountains are clear and the water is clear, and the night comes with frost, and the trees are deep red and light yellow. Trying to climb a high-rise building is as clear as the bones, and it is like the spring scenery that drives people crazy." That's true: red fruits and golden leaves are worse than kings and grandchildren, and Mo Yan's autumn colors are not as good as spring.

This is three buildings sitting side by side, called one master and two backup, always online. The third floor is juxtaposed, and it is necessary to separate the monarch and the ministers. The middle is the main one.

The left hand is the minister.

The right hand is also a minister.

These three buildings are a group of buildings on the West Causeway. Under each building is a three-foot-high blue brick platform, surrounded by white stones with hanging belts. They are all two-story buildings with single-eave gray tiles and green glazed roofs with raised beams. The roof of the main building in the middle is different from the eight-ridge roll shed Xieshan roof on both sides, but the nine-ridge single-eave Xieshan roof. On the ridge of the main building, there is an immortal riding a chicken leading five ridge beasts; on the side building, an immortal riding a chicken followed by three ridge beasts. The three buildings are three rooms wide and three rooms deep, with a circle of verandahs on the upper and lower sides. There is an open pavilion on each side of the main building in the middle. Moreover, there is a stone pier in front of the main building.

This group of buildings is called "Jingming Building", the main building plus two auxiliary buildings on the left and right. The name plaque of the building is under the eaves of the second floor of the main building, which is a plaque. There is also a praise plaque and couplets in each building. On the main building is "Xie Tiao's poems imitate the scenery, and Zhongyan sends a message to write about the clear sky"; downstairs is "Tinglan's shore is sunny and warm, green willows and red peaches are blowing softly" , horizontally criticized "water state haze light". Ting is the waterfront, and Lan Zhi is the flower and vanilla. Only its superficial meaning is used here, Anzhi Tinglan also refers to a high-level person with noble inner moral character, and the word to describe a high-level person's beautiful appearance is "Jade tree facing the wind". Languang refers to the light effect of sunlight shining on the water mist of Kunming Lake.

The upstairs on the left side is "the cloth mat is only suspected of sitting in the sky, and the window is so different to swim in the middle of the painting"; The cloth mat is to lay the seat. In "Historical Records", there is "Director Lang clothed the mat, and Yuan An cited Mrs. Queshen to sit on it." The girl and the cow is of course the Weaver Girl Cowherd. Xu Ming: clear and bright. Old Tao has a saying, "When the cool breeze rises, the night will be clear and clear at night". Vientiane is everything inside and outside the universe. There is a saying by Lao Du that "everything is spring, and the lonely one is the guest star".

Upstairs on the right side is "stopping the rippling shadows and turning the copper phoenix, leaning on the sill to imprint jade toads", and downstairs is "although it is still brewing in spring, it can be seen that the meaning of things has been refreshed"; Radius (Nianrao) means punting, ripples are water ripples, sill (Nianjian) is railings; Chunshao is spring scenery.

From this, it can be seen that Laogan's title of Jingming Tower is based on the artistic conception in Fan Zhongyan's "Yueyang Tower" "To Ruochun and Jingming, the waves are calm, the sky is bright, and there is a vast expanse of green...". The couplet also mentions the poet Xie Tiao of the Northern and Southern Dynasties, and he must have thought of his phrase "Walk along the green water, and hand over the Zhulou". To say that standing at the foot of the Longevity Hill and looking at this building is very "distance"; but this pool of Kunming Lake can hardly be called "winding", it should be called "vast". Judging from Lao Gan's mention of "Niu Nv Fengyue", he must have brought his concubines to fight here on the night of Qixi Festival.

Although Lao Gan wrote plaques and couplets for Jingminglou, he doesn't often spend time in this building, so he has to write a few poems to express his feelings. Liu Sifeng. Connecting the upper and lower sky, the sky is blue, and the east and west water shadows are red. Xie Tiao's poems imitate the scenery of Ji, and Zhongyan's words describe the clear sky. Ting Lan'an's Zhifang is still there, agitating for vitality and silence.

In winter, in the afternoon, under the setting sun, you can watch the Ming Tower.

After passing Jingming Tower, wave the oars and continue going south. Looking back in surprise, I looked at Zhulou, and the green mountains in the distance covered the king. Blue sky, clear water, high platform, this building and that mountain are all humorous.

Looking up, you can see the southernmost Willow Bridge on the West Causeway in front of you.

The Willow Bridge is the largest of the six bridges on the West Causeway, with single-hole stone bridges in front, and the Binfeng Bridge has three holes; this Willow Bridge has five holes. This willow bridge is also a stone bridge, with beams on the bridge pillars to make the bridge hole in the middle. Two small arches are opened on the bridges on both sides. On the one hand, it is to increase the beauty, but in fact, it is mainly for flood drainage. Although the Kunming Lake will not be flooded, the extra small arch is also conducive to the smooth flow of water. On the bridge is a square pavilion with four corners, on which is the top of the mountain with gray tiles and double eaves. Go inside and look at its roof.

This is the roof structure of Xieshanding, with the main ridge under the rolling shed and the façade of mountain flowers. Liuqiao has just been rebuilt a few years ago, and it looks new and bright.

Liuqiao means that there are willows beside the bridge, and there are catkins in spring. Bai Juyi has "the willow bridge is clear and has catkins, and the sandy road is moist without mud". During the period of Qingyi Garden, the bridge at the southern end of the West Causeway was called Jiehu Bridge, which means the water boundary between Kunming Lake and Kunming West Lake. When it was rebuilt during the Guangxu period, Cixi exchanged the names of the willow bridge in the north and south of the west embankment and the Jiehu bridge, and then replanted many willows beside the bridge to complement the willow bridge.

So far, the Six Bridges of the West Causeway have been seen. These six bridges are different, except for the Yudai Bridge, they are all pavilion bridges. That small stone bridge is not a pavilion bridge. The pavilions on each bridge are different, but their shapes and specifications are very similar. It has both a unified style and different details, reflecting a kind of change. It is a pity that the current Jiehu Bridge and Pavilion at the northern end has been lost. To sum up these pavilions and bridges, Binfeng Bridge has three bridges and pavilions with heavy eaves and roofs; Jingqiao has octagonal pavilions with heavy eaves and sharp tops; Xie Shantop.

When I saw the Jiehu Bridge earlier, I asked "what should the Jiehu Bridge Pavilion look like". After seeing the Six Bridges, I estimate that the current Jiehu Bridge should have been three bridge pavilions with gray tiles, double eaves and nine ridges on the top of Xieshan Mountain.

As mentioned earlier, the Su Causeway of the West Lake is straight, and the West Causeway of the Summer Palace is winding. The six bridges on the Su Causeway are all single-hole stone arch bridges, while the Six Bridges on the West Causeway are pavilion bridges of various shapes. There are no tall buildings on the Su Causeway, but there is a beautiful Jingming Tower on the West Causeway. Therefore, although Laogan built the West Causeway in imitation of Su Causeway back then, it was not the same as Su Causeway, and achieved his goal of being more like Su Causeway than Su Causeway.

The spring dawn on Su Causeway is the most beautiful among the ten scenic spots of West Lake. When spring arrives on the West Causeway of Kunming Lake, it is also full of fragrance.

On both sides of the six bridges, there are many mountain peaches. As soon as the spring breeze passes, the peach blossoms bloom, and the rich and colorful branches reflect the green robe. Carrying a pot to draw pulp and flowers to drink, looking for the fairy source to get drunk.

Take advantage of the flowers to look at the tall buildings, and cross the spring with the wind. The willows of the lake stand on the sand embankment, and the mountain peach blooms at the bridgehead.

There are many willow trees planted on Su Causeway of West Lake, so Su Causeway Spring Dawn was called Liuqiao Yanliu in Yuan Dynasty. Laogan also planted many willows on the west embankment of Kunming Lake. When spring returns, the east wind will gradually green the willows on the west embankment. The geese have returned, but the people have not yet returned to the south. The most concerned thing is to fold all the plum blossoms, and it is difficult to send spring thoughts.

Jinghu Lake is warm and microwaved every day, and withered willows sprout new buds in spring. The smoke and willows in the mirror are insignificant, and the spring billows outside the embankment are indistinct.

At the end of summer, there are even more lotuses and lotuses.

When the autumn wind rises, white clouds fly, and when the grass and trees fall yellow, the geese return to the south.

The autumn shade does not disperse, the frost flies late, and the withered lotus is left to listen to the sound of rain.

Geese and ducks don't know the end of spring, they fight to take advantage of the reeds with the flowing water.

The forests of Yuquan are covered with frost in the morning, and the autumn wind is clear and clear.

The golden bridge is different at sunrise, and the wind blows to the west mountain.

In winter, the snow presses down on the clear ripples and waves, and the elms and willows are empty and the pavilions are idle.

Four o'clock on the West Causeway, four o'clock on the West Causeway. The spring water is full of four lakes, and the summer clouds are full of strange peaks. Autumn moon Yang Minghui, Dongling show lonely pine. At any time, Xidi can surprise you.

Go south to the end of the West Causeway and cross a single-hole high-arch stone bridge like the Yudai Bridge to connect with the East Causeway.

This bridge is very similar to the Yudai Bridge. It is also a single-hole high-arch stone bridge, as well as the handrail of the white stone Zen staff and the head of the Yunhe Wangzhu. This bridge connects the West Causeway and the East Causeway, with Kunming Lake inside the bridge on the north and the Changhe River outside the bridge on the south, and the South Ruyi Gate of the Summer Palace built by Guangxu on the East Causeway beside the bridge. When Laogan sailed the long river to bring his mother, the Empress Dowager Chongqing, from the palace to the Summer Palace for her birthday, she had to cross this bridge first. This bridge was the first bridge on Kunming Lake. Emperor Qianlong called it "Hukou The First Bridge in the Southeast".

"Xiuyi Bridge" is written on the bridge railing above the Longmen Stone arched on the north and south sides. In the Song Dynasty, Wu Wenying once had a sentence, "It is most suitable to face the water with colorful makeup. The wind blows the embroidered ripples", saying that the wind embroidered clear ripples on the water.

On the south side of the bridge, there is a couplet "Luo Dai, a pill, a silver basin, floating on Bixiu, with thousands of scales, jade and moon rippling golden waves". As mentioned earlier, Luodai was originally the black lacquer used by ancient women to draw their eyebrows, and here it refers to the west mountain across; This couplet is about standing on the bridge to watch the mountains during the day and the moon and waves at night.

The couplet on the north side of the bridge reads "The road enters Langfeng, clouds and clouds surge in the sky, and the ground is near the palace of Pengdao Island, which is bright by the water". Langfeng (reading Langfeng) is also on the top of Langfeng, on Kunlun Mountain, a fairyland. "Chu Songs" has "Chaowu will help the Baishui Xi, climb the Langfeng and give up the horses". Penglai Island is also known as Penglai Island, also a fairyland, here refers to the lake island. There are three sacred mountains in the mythology of the pre-Qin period: Kunlun, Fangzhang and Penglai. Later, these three mountains were called the Three Islands by Taoism, and the Ten Immortal Continents were created, collectively called "Ten Continents and Three Islands". This couplet means that what you see when standing on the bridge is like a fairyland. The couplets of this bridge are related to the couplets of Yudai Bridge, because the two bridges are the same.

Lao Gan also wrote a small poem for the Xiuyi Bridge: the lake mouth of the long bridge is locked in haze, and the scene of rowing across the bridge is beautiful. The white level drags like a horse, and the red lotus embroiders a few flowers.

From the south end of the West Causeway to the east is the Xiuyi Bridge, and across the bridge is the East Causeway. There are still some landscapes facing west from the south end of the West Causeway, which will be discussed in the next episode.

(According to the old post "Go boating when the sweet-scented osmanthus is in bloom, ride the wind on the west embankment to enjoy the six bridges")

(to be continued)